5 research outputs found

    Redox Grafting of Diazotated Anthraquinone as a Means of Forming Thick Conducting Organic Films

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    Thick conductive layers containing anthraquinone moieties are covalently immobilized on gold using redox grafting of the diazonium salt of anthraquinone (i.e., 9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene-1-diazonium tetrafluoroborate). This grafting procedure is based on using consecutive voltammetric sweeping and through this exploiting fast electron transfer reactions that are mediated by the anthraquinone redox moieties in the film. The fast film growth, which is followed by infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and coverage calculation, results in a mushroom-like structure. In addition to varying the number of sweeps, layer thickness control can easily be exerted through appropriate choice of the switching potential and sweep rate. It is shown that the grafting of the diazonium salt is essentially a diffusion-controlled process but also that desorption of physisorbed material during the sweeping process is essentially for avoiding blocking of the film due to clogging of the electrolyte channels in the film. In general, sweep rates higher than 0.5 V s<sup>–1</sup> are required if thick, porous, and conducting films should be formed

    Electron Transport through a Diazonium-Based Initiator Layer to Covalently Attached Polymer Brushes of Ferrocenylmethyl Methacrylate

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    A versatile method based on electrografting of aryldiazonium salts was used to introduce covalently attached initiators for atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) on glassy carbon surfaces. Polymer brushes of ferrocenylmethyl methacrylate were prepared from the surface-attached initiators, and these films were thoroughly analyzed using various techniques, including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared reflection–absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), ellipsometry, and electrochemistry. Of particular interest was the electrochemical characterization of the electron transfer through the diazonium-based initiator layer to the redox centers in the polymer brush films. It was found that the apparent rate constant of electron transfer decreases exponentially with the dry-state thickness of this layer. To investigate the electron transfer in the brushes themselves, scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was applied, thereby allowing the effect from the initiator layer to be excluded. The unusual transition feature of the approach curves recorded suggests that an initial fast charge transfer to the outermost-situated ferrocenyl groups is followed by a slower electron transport involving the neighboring redox units

    Electrochemical Polymerization of Allylamine Copolymers

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    We describe for the first time the electro-oxidative synthesis and passivating properties of surface films of poly­(allylamine) and copolymers of allylamine and diallylamine. Cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectra show that the films exhibit high charge-transfer resistance and that the addition of diallylamine causes improvements in the compactness and stability toward swelling of the films when compared to both allylamine and diallyamine, leading to coatings with high charge-transfer resistance up to 70 MΩ. We also show that removing oxygen before the polymerization further improves the films’ passivating properties

    Elucidation of the Mechanism of Redox Grafting of Diazotated Anthraquinone

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    Redox grafting of aryldiazonium salts containing redox units may be used to form exceptionally thick covalently attached conducting films, even in the micrometers range, in a controlled manner on glassy carbon and gold substrates. With the objective to investigate the mechanism of this process in detail, 1-anthraquinone (AQ) redox units were immobilized on these substrates by electroreduction of 9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene-1-diazonium tetrafluoroborate. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance was employed to follow the grafting process during a cyclic voltammetric sweep by recording the frequency change. The redox grafting is shown to have two mass gain regions/phases: an irreversible one due to the addition of AQ units to the substrate/film and a reversible one due to the association of cations from the supporting electrolyte with the AQ radical anions formed during the sweeping process. Scanning electrochemical microscopy was used to study the relationship between the conductivity of the film and the charging level of the AQ redox units in the grafted film. For that purpose, approach curves were recorded at a platinum ultramicroelectrode for AQ-containing films on gold and glassy carbon surfaces using the ferro/ferricyanide redox system as redox probe. It is concluded that the film growth has its origin in electron transfer processes occurring through the layer mediated by the redox moieties embedded in the organic film

    Controlled Electrochemical Carboxylation of Graphene To Create a Versatile Chemical Platform for Further Functionalization

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    An electrochemical approach is introduced for the versatile carboxylation of multi-layered graphene in 0.1 M Bu<sub>4</sub>NBF<sub>4</sub>/MeCN. First, the graphene substrate (i.e., graphene chemically vapor-deposited on Ni) is negatively charged at −1.9 V versus Ag/AgI in a degassed solution to allow for intercalation of Bu<sub>4</sub>N<sup>+</sup> and, thereby, separation of the individual graphene sheets. In the next step, the strongly activated and nucleophilic graphene is allowed to react with added carbon dioxide in an addition reaction, introducing carboxylate groups stabilized by Bu<sub>4</sub>N<sup>+</sup> already present. This procedure may be carried out repetitively to further enhance the carboxylation degree under controlled conditions. Encouragingly, the same degree of control is even attainable, if the intercalation and carboxylation is carried out simultaneously in a one-step procedure, consisting of simply electrolyzing in a CO<sub>2</sub>-saturated solution at the graphene electrode for a given time. The same functionalization degree is obtained for all multi-layered regions, independent of the number of graphene sheets, which is due to the fact that the entire graphene structure is opened in response to the intercalation of Bu<sub>4</sub>N<sup>+</sup>. Hence, this electrochemical method offers a versatile procedure to make all graphene sheets in a multi-layered but expanded structure accessible for functionalization. On a more general level, this approach will provide a versatile way of forming new hybrid materials based on intimate bond coupling to graphene via carboxylate groups