13 research outputs found

    Effects of silicon addition to rice plants (TN1) on food consumption efficiency in third instars of <i>Cnaphalocrocis medinalis</i>.

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    <p>A: Food consumed, B: relative consumption rate (<i>RCR</i>), C: relative growth rate (<i>RGR</i>), D: approximate digestibility (<i>AD</i>), E: efficiency of conversion of ingested food (<i>ECI</i>), F: efficiency of conversion of digested food (<i>ECD</i>). Values are expressed as means ± SE. Bars with different letters are significantly different (Tukey’s multiple range test, <i>P</i> = 0.05). Numbers in bars indicate replications.</p

    Effects of silicon addition to rice plants (TN1) on growth and development of <i>Cnaphalocrocis medinalis</i> larvae and pupae.

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    <p>A: Larval duration, B: weight of third instars, C: larval survival rate, D: pupal duration, E: pupal weight, F: pupation rate. Values are expressed as means ± SE. Bars with different letters are significantly different (Tukey’s multiple range test, <i>P</i> = 0.05). Numbers in bars indicate replications. Larval duration, larval survival rate and pupation rate were observed to three 150-first-instar groups in each treatment.</p

    Effects of silicon addition on silicon and soluble sugar content and C:N ratio in the reciprocal fourth leaves and stems.

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    <p>A: Silicon content in rice leaves, B: silicon content in rice stems, C: soluble sugar content in rice leaves, D: C:N ratio in rice leaves. Values are expressed as means ± SE. Bars with different letters are significantly different (Tukey’s multiple range test, <i>P</i> = 0.05). Numbers in bars indicate replications.</p

    Effects of silicon amendment to rice plants on larval survival rate of <i>Cnaphalocrocis medinalis</i>.

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    <p>+Si = silicon amendment at 0.32 g Si/kg soil to rice plants,–Si = no silicon amendment. Values are means ± SE from 3 replicates measured with different leaf samples. Different letters over the bars in a certain larval stadium denote significant difference at <i>P</i> < 0.05 according to Independent-samples t-test.</p

    Non-sequential EPG variable values of the probing behavior of <i>Sogatella furcifera</i> nymphs and adults feeding on rice and corn plants during an eight-hour recording.

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    <p>Non-sequential EPG variable values of the probing behavior of <i>Sogatella furcifera</i> nymphs and adults feeding on rice and corn plants during an eight-hour recording.</p

    Typical EPG waveforms identified from <i>Sogatella furcifera</i> on rice and corn plants.

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    <p>np: non-penetration, N1: penetration initiation, N2: salivation and stylet movement, N3: extracellular stylet activity near the phloem region, N4-a: intracellular stylet activity in the phloem region without ingestion, N4-b: phloem sap ingestion, N5: stylets in the xylem tissue.</p

    Three-way analysis of variance for significance (<i>P</i> value) of the effects of silicon amendment to plants, <i>Cnaphalocrocis medinalis</i> infestation and infestation time on enzyme activities and concentrations of malondialdehyde and soluble protein.

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    <p>Three-way analysis of variance for significance (<i>P</i> value) of the effects of silicon amendment to plants, <i>Cnaphalocrocis medinalis</i> infestation and infestation time on enzyme activities and concentrations of malondialdehyde and soluble protein.</p

    SRBSDV inoculation rate on corn plants by viruliferous <i>Sogatella furcifera</i> that acquired the virus from rice plants.

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    <p>(A) all combinations of rice and corn stages, (B) rice stage main effects, and (C) corn stage main effects. The test was repeated for 86 to 93 insects for each of the nine combinations of rice and corn stages. The data are expressed as means + 95% CI. Different letters over the bars in panel B and C indicate significant difference between treatments by binomial logistic regression.</p

    Effects of silicon amendment and <i>Cnaphalocrocis medinalis</i> infestation on soluble protein content in rice leaves.

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    <p>+Si = silicon amendment at 0.32 g Si/kg soil to rice plants,–Si = no silicon amendment. +LF = infestation of <i>C</i>. <i>medinalis</i> larvae,–LF = no infestation. Values are means ± SE from 3 replicates measured with different leaf samples. The means labeled by different letters at a certain time point post <i>C</i>. <i>medinalis</i> infestation are significantly different at <i>P</i> < 0.05 according to Tukey’s multiple range tests.</p

    Scanning electron micrographs with 300× magnification from a cross section of rice leaf surface.

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    <p>The rice plants were amended with silicon at 0.32 g Si/kg soil (+Si) or not (-Si) and infested with <i>C</i>. <i>medinalis</i> larvae (+LF) or not (-LF). SC = silica cell. A: -Si-LF; B: -Si+LF; C: +Si-LF; D: +Si+LF.</p
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