4 research outputs found

    Predicting Interactive Behavior of Cytokines and Their Receptors by Dielectric Thermal Analysis and Thermogravimetry

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    Cytokines and soluble cytokine receptors serve as important protein biomarkers for chronic and infectious disease diagnosis. The development of biosensors capable of detecting cytokines or their soluble receptors in patient bodily fluids is a growing area of research. In an ongoing series of studies to understand the thermal analytical behavior of cytokines and their soluble receptors, dielectric thermal analysis (DETA) and thermogravimetry (TG) were used in investigations to determine if differentiations based on dielectric properties (e.g., conductivity) of the proteins could be identified. Permittivity (ε′) and dielectric loss factor (ε′) measurements were performed over a frequency range of 0.1-300,000 Hz. Up to 20 min, water associated with the samples was conductive, interacting with the proteins and affecting the temperature-dependent relaxation spectra of proteins. A trend analysis revealed differences between surface charge at 0.1 Hz and bulk charge at 300,000 Hz. In addition, the greatest change detected among proteins was due to the conductivity (dielectric loss factor). Beyond a 20 min drying time, the observed conductivity was due to intrinsic properties of the proteins with limited dependence on frequency. A 100% water loss was obtained for samples within 20-30 min by TG. Sample drying by TG could serve as a preparatory step in drying protein samples for further DETA and DSC analysis. © 2011 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary

    Human Cytokines Characterized by Dielectric Thermal Analysis, Thermogravimetry, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry

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    Malaria affects over 500 million people worldwide leading to 1-2 million deaths each year, the majority of whom are children. Four Plasmodium species cause malaria in humans. To properly diagnose, and correctly treat malarial infections, accurate diagnosis of infection is required. Proper diagnosis of infection will result in a reduction of morbidity, mortality, and of drug resistant parasites. However, the current tests for malaria diagnosis do not efficiently identify the appropriate human and parasite biomarkers associated with disease. Detection of specific inflammatory mediators such as cytokines associated with malaria pathogenesis will aid the determination of disease progression, disease prognosis, and the early diagnosis of malaria infection. In this study, we used dielectric thermal analysis (DETA), thermogravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to characterize five human cytokines (IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10), to demonstrate how their thermoanalytical properties can be investigated for sensor design. Analysis for DETA was performed at a frequency range of 0.1-300,000 Hz. Permittivity and loss factor measurements were used to calculate tan δ values. Peak frequencies were used to determine dielectric signatures for each cytokine. The peak frequencies were different for each cytokine analyzed. In addition, activation energies were frequency dependent for IL-2 but frequency independent for the remaining four cytokines. Cytokines were also examined using DSC which established variance in heat of crystallization and heat of fusion of solvent among the five cytokines. A noticeable differentiation was observed with IL-1α among the other four cytokines when analyzed using trend analysis. Detection of unique dielectric signals will aid development of sensitive dielectric sensors capable of detecting cytokines in various human samples. © 2012 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary

    Thermal Behavior and Signature Patterns of Human Cytokine and Soluble Cytokine Receptors Investigated Using Dielectric Thermal Analysis and Thermogravimetry

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    Cytokines are small regulatory proteins secreted mostly by cells of the immune system. Cytokines participate in anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory processes in the body and in responses to host exposure to pathogens. In this study, the thermal behavior of human recombinant cytokines and soluble cytokine receptors; IFNγ, TNFα, IL-1 receptor antagonist, soluble TNF-receptor types 1 and 2, and sIL-2 receptor α were analyzed by dielectric thermal analysis at 37 °C and by thermogravimetry. Measurements were performed at a frequency range of 0.1-300,000 Hz. Permittivity and loss factor measurements were used to calculate mobility of charges (tan δ values) in the proteins from Debye plots. Peak frequencies and polarization times were used to determine dielectric signatures for each cytokine and receptor. Peak frequencies and polarization times were obtained for each cytokine and receptor analyzed. Detection of unique dielectric signatures of the proteins will aid development of sensitive dielectric sensors capable of detecting cytokines and soluble cytokine receptors in various human samples for malaria diagnosis. © 2011 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary
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