3,124 research outputs found

### Moments of generalized parton distribution functions and the nucleon spin contents

It is shown that, based only on two empirically known facts besides two
reasonable theoretical postulates, we are inevitably led to a conclusion that
the quark orbital angular momentum carries nearly half of the total nucleon
spin. We also perform a model analysis to find that the quark spin fraction
$\Delta \Sigma$ is extremely sensitive to the pion mass, which may resolve the
discrepancy between the observation and the prediction of the recent lattice
QCD simulation carried out in the heavy pion region.Comment: LaTeX, 8 pages, 1 figur

### Chiral odd GPDs in transverse and longitudinal impact parameter spaces

We investigate the chiral odd generalized parton distributions (GPDs) for
non-zero skewness $\zeta$ in transverse and longitudinal position spaces by
taking Fourier transform with respect to the transverse and longitudinal
momentum transfer respectively. We present overlap formulas for the chiral-odd
GPDs in terms of light-front wave functions (LFWFs) of the proton both in the
ERBL and DGLAP regions. We calculate them in a field theory inspired model of a
relativistic spin 1/2 composite state with the correct correlation between the
different LFWFs in Fock space, namely that of the quantum fluctuations of an
electron in a generalized form of QED. We show the spin-orbit correlation
effect of the two-particle LFWF as well as the correlation between the
constituent spin and the transverse spin of the target.Comment: 1 figure and references added, typos corrected. version to appear in
Phys.Rev.

### Detection of edges using local geometry

Researchers described a new representation, the local geometry, for early visual processing which is motivated by results from biological vision. This representation is richer than is often used in image processing. It extracts more of the local structure available at each pixel in the image by using receptive fields that can be continuously rotated and that go to third order spatial variation. Early visual processing algorithms such as edge detectors and ridge detectors can be written in terms of various local geometries and are computationally tractable. For example, Canny's edge detector has been implemented in terms of a local geometry of order two, and a ridge detector in terms of a local geometry of order three. The edge detector in local geometry was applied to synthetic and real images and it was shown using simple interpolation schemes that sufficient information is available to locate edges with sub-pixel accuracy (to a resolution increase of at least a factor of five). This is reasonable even for noisy images because the local geometry fits a smooth surface - the Taylor series - to the discrete image data. Only local processing was used in the implementation so it can readily be implemented on parallel mesh machines such as the MPP. Researchers expect that other early visual algorithms, such as region growing, inflection point detection, and segmentation can also be implemented in terms of the local geometry and will provide sufficiently rich and robust representations for subsequent visual processing

### Dynamical Polarizabilities of SU(3) Octet of Baryons

We present calculations and an analysis of the spin-independent dipole
electric and magnetic dynamical polarizabilities for the lowest in mass SU(3)
octet of baryons. These extensive calculations are made possible by the recent
implementation of semi-automatized calculations in Chiral Perturbation Theory
which allows evaluating dynamical spin-independent electromagnetic
polarizabilities from Compton scattering up to next-to-the-leading order. Our
results are in good agreement with calculations performed for nucleons found in
the literature. The dependencies for the range of photon energies up to 1 GeV,
covering the majority of the meson photo production channels, are analyzed. The
separate contributions into polarizabilities from the various baryon meson
clouds are studied.Comment: 10 pages, 7 figures, extended analysis of hyperon polarizabilitie

### The Zero-Bin and Mode Factorization in Quantum Field Theory

We study a Lagrangian formalism that avoids double counting in effective
field theories where distinct fields are used to describe different infrared
momentum regions for the same particle. The formalism leads to extra
subtractions in certain diagrams and to a new way of thinking about
factorization of modes in quantum field theory. In non-relativistic field
theories, the subtractions remove unphysical pinch singularities in box type
diagrams, and give a derivation of the known pull-up mechanism between soft and
ultrasoft fields which is required by the renormalization group evolution. In a
field theory for energetic particles, the soft-collinear effective theory
(SCET), the subtractions allow the theory to be defined with different infrared
and ultraviolet regulators, remove double counting between soft, ultrasoft, and
collinear modes, and give results which reproduce the infrared divergences of
the full theory. Our analysis shows that convolution divergences in
factorization formul\ae occur due to an overlap of momentum regions. We propose
a method that avoids this double counting, which helps to resolve a long
standing puzzle with singularities in collinear factorization in QCD. The
analysis gives evidence for a factorization in rapidity space in exclusive
decays.Comment: 92 pages, v4- Journal version. Some improvements to language in
sections I, IIA, VI

### Factorization Structure of Gauge Theory Amplitudes and Application to Hard Scattering Processes at the LHC

Previous work on electroweak radiative corrections to high energy scattering
using soft-collinear effective theory (SCET) has been extended to include
external transverse and longitudinal gauge bosons and Higgs bosons. This allows
one to compute radiative corrections to all parton-level hard scattering
amplitudes in the standard model to NLL order, including QCD and electroweak
radiative corrections, mass effects, and Higgs exchange corrections, if the
high-scale matching, which is suppressed by two orders in the log counting, and
contains no large logs, is known. The factorization structure of the effective
theory places strong constraints on the form of gauge theory amplitudes at high
energy for massless and massive gauge theories, which are discussed in detail
in the paper. The radiative corrections can be written as the sum of
process-independent one-particle collinear functions, and a universal soft
function. We give plots for the radiative corrections to q qbar -> W_T W_T, Z_T
Z_T, W_L W_L, and Z_L H, and gg -> W_T W_T to illustrate our results. The
purely electroweak corrections are large, ranging from 12% at 500 GeV to 37% at
2 TeV for transverse W pair production, and increasing rapidly with energy. The
estimated theoretical uncertainty to the partonic (hard) cross-section in most
cases is below one percent, smaller than uncertainties in the parton
distribution functions (PDFs). We discuss the relation between SCET and other
factorization methods, and derive the Magnea-Sterman equations for the Sudakov
form factor using SCET, for massless and massive gauge theories, and for light
and heavy external particles.Comment: 44 pages, 30 figures. Refs added, typos fixed. ZL ZL plots removed
because of a possible subtlet

### A Lattice Test of 1/N_c Baryon Mass Relations

1/N_c baryon mass relations are compared with lattice simulations of baryon
masses using different values of the light-quark masses, and hence different
values of SU(3) flavor-symmetry breaking. The lattice data clearly display both
the 1/N_c and SU(3) flavor-symmetry breaking hierarchies. The validity of 1/N_c
baryon mass relations derived without assuming approximate SU(3)
flavor-symmetry also can be tested by lattice data at very large values of the
strange quark mass. The 1/N_c expansion constrains the form of discretization
effects; these are suppressed by powers of 1/N_c by taking suitable
combinations of masses. This 1/N_c scaling is explicitly demonstrated in the
present work.Comment: 13 pages, 20 figures; v2 version to be published in PR

### Radiative quarkonium decays and the NMSSM Higgs interpretation of the HyperCP Sigma+ --> p mu+mu- events

We study the potential of radiative decays of the Upsilon(1S) and of the phi
mesons to search for a light pseudoscalar Higgs boson, proposed as a possible
interpretation of Sigma+ --> p mu+mu- events observed by the HyperCP
collaboration at Fermilab. We conclude that the detection of this signal should
certainly be possible with the current CLEO Upsilon(1S) data, and is within the
reach of KLOE in at least part of the range of couplings suggested by the
HyperCP findings.Comment: 6 pages, no figure

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