4,400 research outputs found

    Modeling Factor Demands with SEM and VAR: An Empirical Comparison

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    The empirical analysis of the economic interactions between factors of production, output and corresponding prices has received much attention over the last two decades. Most contributions in this area have agreed on the neoclassical principle of a representative optimizing firm and typically use theory-based structural equation models (SEM). A popular alternative to SEM is given by the vector autoregression (VAR) methodology. The most recent attempts to link the SEM approach with VAR analysis in the area of factor demands concentrate on single-equation models, whereas no effort has been devoted to compare these alternative approaches when a firm is assumed to face a multi-factor technology and to decide simultaneously the optimal quantity for each input. This paper bridges this gap. First, we illustrate how the SEM and the VAR approaches can both represent valid alternatives to model systems of dynamic factor demands. Second, we show how to apply both methodologies to estimate dynamic factor demands derived from a cost-minimizing capital-labour-energy-materials (KLEM) technology with adjustment costs (ADC) on the quasi-fixed capital factor. Third, we explain how to use both models to calculate some widely accepted indicators of the production structure of an economic sector, such as price and quantity elasticities, and alternative measures of ADC. In particular, we propose and discuss some theoretical and empirical justifications of the differences between observed elasticities, measures of ADC, and the assumption of exogeneity of output and/or input prices. Finally, we offer some suggestions for the applied researcher.Simultaneous equation models, Vector autoregression models, Factor demands, Dynamic duality

    How does stock market volatility react to oil shocks?

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    We study the impact of oil price shocks on the U.S. stock market volatility. We jointly analyze three different structural oil market shocks (i.e., aggregate demand, oil supply, and oil-specific demand shocks) and stock market volatility using a structural vector autoregressive model. Identification is achieved by assuming that the price of crude oil reacts to stock market volatility only with delay. This implies that innovations to the price of crude oil are not strictly exogenous, but predetermined with respect to the stock market. We show that volatility responds significantly to oil price shocks caused by unexpected changes in aggregate and oil-specific demand, whereas the impact of supply-side shocks is negligible

    On the Economic Determinants of Oil Production. Theoretical Analysis and Empirical Evidence for Small Exporting Countries

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    In this paper, decisions regarding production in oil exporting countries are studied by means of theoretical analysis and empirical investigation. Under the assumptions of exogenous oil prices and world oil demand, we are able to describe the relationship between oil production levels and changes in the conditions in world oil markets. Intertemporal production decisions by a representative oil producer are modelled by means of a partial equilibrium model. In this theoretical model, oil producers are subject to exogenous shocks in world oil demand and prices. Oil companies can change output levels only by incurring a fixed cost. Results from the simulation of this model show a strong relationship between oil production and changes in world oil consumption. On the contrary, the effects of changes in real oil prices on oil production decisions seem to be much lower. Results from the simulation of the theoretical model are then empirically investigated using time-series econometric techniques. The empirical evidence supports the hypothesis that several oil producing countries are characterized by different responses to changes in world oil demand and in real oil prices. For many countries production rapidly adjusts to changes in consumption whereas responses of oil production to innovations in real oil prices are found to be not statistically significant. In addition, when non-linearities in the relationship between exogenous variables and output levels are allowed for, evidence of asymmetric effects of output levels to shocks in demand levels and oil prices is found.Oil Production, Exogenous Shocks, Theoretical Modelling, Time Series Analysis

    Testing Multiple Non-nested Factor Demand Systems,

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    Empirical factor demand analysis typically involves making a choice from among several competing non-nested functional forms. Each of the commonly used factor demand systems, such as Translog, Generalized Leontief, Quadratic, and Generalized McFadden, can provide a valid and useful empirical description of the underlying production structure of the firm. As there is no theoretical guidance on selecting the model which is best able to capture the relevant features of the data, formal testing procedures can provide additional information. Paired and joint univariate nonnested tests of a null model against both single and multiple alternatives have been discussed at length in the literature, whereas virtually no attention has been paid to either paired or joint multivariate non-nested tests. This paper shows how some multivariate non-nested tests can be derived from their univariate counterparts, and examines how to use these tests empirically to compare alternative factor demand systems. The empirical application involves the classical Berndt- Khaled annual data set for the U.S. manufacturing sector over the period 1947-1971. A statistically adequate empirical specification is determined for each competing factor demand system. The empirical results are interpreted for each system, and the models are compared on the basis of multivariate paired and joint non-nested procedures.

    Asymmetric Error Correction Models for the Oil-Gasoline Price Relationship

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    The existing literature on price asymmetries does not systematically investigate the sensitivity of the empirical results to the choice of a particular econometric specification. This paper fills this gap by providing a detailed comparison of the three most popular models designed to describe asymmetric price behaviour, namely asymmetric ECM, autoregressive threshold ECM and ECM with threshold cointegration. Each model is estimated on a common monthly dataset for the gasoline markets of France, Germany, Italy, Spain and UK over the period 1985-2003. All models are able to capture the temporal delay in the reaction of retail prices to changes in spot gasoline and crude oil prices, as well as some evidence of asymmetric behaviour. However, the type of market and the number of countries which are characterized by asymmetric oil-gasoline price relations vary across models. The asymmetric ECM yields some evidence of asymmetry for all countries, mainly at the distribution stage. The threshold ECM strongly rejects the null hypothesis of symmetric price behaviour, particularly in the case of France and Germany. Finally, the ECM with threshold cointegration finds long-run asymmetry for each country in the reaction of retail prices to oil price changes.Oil prices, Gasoline prices, Asymmetries, Error correction models

    STAR-GARCH Models for Stock Market Interactions in the Pacific Basin Region, Japan and US

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    We investigate the financial interactions between countries in the Pacific Basin region (Korea, Singapore, Malaysia, Hong Kong and Taiwan), Japan and US. The originality of the paper is the use of STAR-GARCH models, instead of standard correlation-cointegration techniques. For each country in the Pacific Basin region, we find statistically adequate STAR-GARCH models for the series of stock market daily returns, using Nikkei225 and S&P500 as alternative threshold variables. We provide evidence for the leading role of Japan in the period 1988-1990 (pre-Japanese crisis years), whereas our results suggest that the Pacific Basin region countries are more closely linked with the US during the period 1995-1999 (post- Japanese crisis years).STAR-GARCH models, stock market integration, Pacific-Basin capital markets, outliers

    Exogenous Oil Shocks, Fiscal Policy and Sector Reallocations in Oil Producing Countries

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    Previous literature has suggested that different mechanisms of transmission of exogenous oil shocks are responsible for the negative effects on the economic performances of oil exporting countries. This paper aims at providing further evidence on the role of sectoral reallocation between private and public sectors in explaining the impact of shocks to oil revenues on the economic growth rates of major oil producing countries (namely the GCC - Gulf Corporation Council - countries). The effects of oil shocks and expansionary fiscal policy on the business cycle of oil producing countries are examined. The possibility to distinguish between various components of public sector spending policy (that is, purchases of consumption goods, investments in productive activities and compensation for public employees) is, in particular, allowed for. A real business cycle (RBC) model is calibrated to fit the data on an “average” oil producing country. Results from the simulation of the theoretical model suggest that the possibility that crowding-out effects of public over private investments can explain a large fraction of the negative effects of shocks to oil revenues on the private sector of the economy. In addition, since the growth in size of the public sector is unable to compensate for the reduction in size of the private sector, an increase in oil revenues has the effect to decrease total output. An expansionary fiscal policy is argued to have significant positive effects on private investments, employment and overall production. On the contrary, a shock to government consumption expenditure impacts negatively the level of public investment. As employment in the public sector increases significantly, public output responds positively to a shock in government consumption expenditure. Finally, an instantaneous negative effect on total investments and on the stock of capital in the economy is predicted. However, driven by the increase of the number of employees in the economy, total output expands.Oil Shocks, Dutch Disease, Resource Curse and Real Business Cycle Modelling

    Econometric Models of Asymmetric Price Transmission

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    In this paper we review the existing empirical literature on price asymmetries in commodities, providing a way to classify and compare different studies which are highly heterogeneous in terms of econometric models, type of asymmetries and empirical findings. Relative to the previous literature, this paper is novel in several respects. First, it presents a detailed and updated survey of the existing empirical contributions on the existence of price asymmetries in the transmission mechanism linking input prices to output prices. Second, this paper presents an extension of the traditional distinction between long-run and short-run asymmetries to new categories of asymmetries, such as: contemporaneous impact, distributed lag effect, cumulated impact, reaction time, equilibrium and momentum equilibrium adjustment path, regime effect, regime equilibrium adjustment path. Third, each empirical study is critically discussed in the light of this new classification of asymmetries. Fourth, this paper evaluates the relative merits of the most popular econometric models for price asymmetries, namely autoregressive distributed lags, partial adjustments, error correction models, regime switching and vector autoregressive models.Price asymmetries, Cointegration, Partial adjustment, Threshold regime switching

    Oil Prices, Inflation and Interest Rates in a Structural Cointegrated VAR Model for the G-7 Countries

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    Sharp increases in the price of oil are generally seen as a major contributor to business cycle asymmetries. Moreover, the very recent highs registered in the world oil market are causing concern about possible slowdowns in the economic performance of the most developed countries. While several authors have considered the direct channels of transmission of energy price increases, other authors have argued that the economic downturns arose from the monetary policy response to the inflation presumably caused by oil price increases. In this paper a structural cointegrated VAR model has been considered for the G-7 countries in order to study the direct effects of oil price shocks on output and prices and the reaction of monetary variables to external shocks. Empirical analysis shows that, for most of the countries considered, there seems to be an impact of unexpected oil price shocks on interest rates, suggesting a contractionary monetary policy response directed to fight inflation. In turn, increases in interest rates are transmitted to real economy by reducing output growth and the inflation rate.Oil price shocks, Monetary policy response, Structural VAR models