81 research outputs found

    Analyzing the sensitivity of a flood risk assessment model towards its input data

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    The Small Island Developing States are characterized by an unstable economy and low-lying, densely populated cities, resulting in a high vulnerability to natural hazards. Flooding affects more people than any other hazard. To limit the consequences of these hazards, adequate risk assessments are indispensable. Satisfactory input data for these assessments are hard to acquire, especially in developing countries. Therefore, in this study, a methodology was developed and evaluated to test the sensitivity of a flood model towards its input data in order to determine a minimum set of indispensable data. In a first step, a flood damage assessment model was created for the case study of Annotto Bay, Jamaica. This model generates a damage map for the region based on the flood extent map of the 2001 inundations caused by Tropical Storm Michelle. Three damages were taken into account: building, road and crop damage. Twelve scenarios were generated, each with a different combination of input data, testing one of the three damage calculations for its sensitivity. One main conclusion was that population density, in combination with an average number of people per household, is a good parameter in determining the building damage when exact building locations are unknown. Furthermore, the importance of roads for an accurate visual result was demonstrated

    Role Of Algae-Bacterial Consortium In Heavy Metal Contaminated Water Treatment

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    Heavy metal pollution of the environment is a global issue that has an impact on all types of natural life. Arsenic (As) and Cadmium (Cd), along with other heavy metals, permeate our environment and have a number of negative impacts. As and Cd are harmful compounds that are currently prevalent everywhere as a result of water pollution, temperature rise, and climate change in aquatic ecosystems. Using bacteria and algae to remove, decompose, or render harmless contaminants and harmful chemicals (As and Cd) in aquatic systems is currently gaining more attention. the use of bioremediation to remove heavy metals from aquatic environments. Heavy metal pollution of the environment is a global issue that has an impact on all types of natural life. Arsenic (As) and Cadmium (Cd), along with other heavy metals, permeate our environment and have a number of negative impacts. As and Cd are harmful compounds that are currently prevalent everywhere as a result of water pollution, temperature rise, and climate change in aquatic ecosystems. Using bacteria and algae to remove, decompose, or render harmless contaminants and harmful chemicals (As and Cd) in aquatic systems is currently gaining more attention. the use of bioremediation to remove heavy metals from aquatic environments

    Determining Composition of Volatiles in Couroupita guianensis Aubl. Through Headspace-Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (HS-SPME)

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    Composition of volatile components in Couroupita guianensis Aubl. flowers was analyzed using headspace-solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME), followed by capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) separation and identification. In all, 75 compounds were identified accounting for 96.32% of the total volatiles present. The major groups of compounds present were oxygenated terpenoids (35.66%), alcohols (26.92%), esters (17.36%), mono-and sesqui-terpenoids (8.64%), aldehydes and ketones (4.71%), hydrocarbons (1.68%), phenols (0.18%), acids (0.754%) and heterocyclic compounds (0.42%) constituted a small proportion of the volatile profile. The most abundant individual constituent was eugenol (18.95%) followed by nerol (13.49%), (E,E) farnesol (12.88%), (E,E)-farnesyl acetate (6.68%), trans ocimene (6.02%), nootkatone (4.64%), geraniol (2.94%), 2-isopropenyl-5- methyl-4-hexenyl acetate (2.69%), cedr-8-en-13-ol (2.58%), (E,Z)-farnesyl acetate (2.40%) and methyl (11E)-11- hexadecenoate (2.041%). Analytical comparison of composition of volatiles in the flowers, obtained by different methods of extraction, viz., solvent extraction, micro-simultaneous extraction and headspace-solid phase microextraction, revealed specific variations in relative concentrations of the constituent chemicals. Linalool was the major chemical (21.5% and 14.9%) in solvent extract and micro-simultaneous extract, respectively, but appeared in negligible quantity (0.16%) in head-space analysis

    Potential Approach Of Mushrooms In Bioremediation –A Short Review

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    One of the biggest environmental problems facing the world today is the soil contamination caused by industrialization and the widespread use of chemicals. "Bioremediation" is an affordable and ecologically beneficial cleanup method that employs microorganisms to swiftly and efficiently break down dangerous pollutants. Substances that are toxic are changed into less harmful forms. The ability of fungi to change a variety of hazardous compounds has led to the possibility of using them in bioremediation. Mushroom-foring fungi, mostly basidiomycetes, are some of the natural most powerful decomposers due to their quick development and huge biomass output. They also emit strong extracellular enzymes. Among these enzymes are lignin peroxidases, laccase, and manganese peroxidase. Several mushrooms have been used to remove contaminants from contaminated environments, including Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium Trametes versicolor. Bioremediation has made use of Lentinus squarrosulus, Pleurotus tuber-regium, P. ostreatus, and P. pulmonarius. This paper highlights the use of mushrooms for bioremediation as well as applying fungal mycelia in bioremediation, in general referred to as myco-remediation. A brief summary of the future of using mushrooms for bioremediation is also provided

    Assess the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of herbal popsicles prepared by Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Clitorea ternatea floral waste

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    In this study, we extracted bio-colour from two commonly available flowers, Rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) and Butterfly pea flower (Clitoria ternatea), and evaluated their potential therapeutic benefits by examining their antioxidant and antibacterial activity. To assess the suitability and quality of the extracted bio-colour as a food additive, we formulated ice popsicles using bio-colour derived from H. sabdariffa and C. ternatea. The crude floral waste extract of H. sabdariffa showed the highest reducing capacity (FRAP assay), antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS assay), and antibacterial potential. This may be attributed to polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, ascorbic acids, organic acids, hibiscus acid, and other compounds in H. sabdariffa flower parts. The ice popsicles formulated with these two bio-colours contained significant polyphenol and flavonoid content, contributing to their antioxidant potential comparable to ice popsicles available in the local market. The formulated ice popsicles also retained better physical properties (texture, melting, smoothness/hardness) and sensory qualities (as per hedonic scale rating) than market-derived ice popsicles. Therefore, these two crude floral wastes can be utilized as functional food bio-colourants in the food industry

    Aquatic Plants in phytoremediation of contaminated water: Recent knowledge and future prospects

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    The increase of heavy metals in natural resources, including land and water has been rapidly raised due to a variety of natural methods, higher agricultural activities, contaminated irrigation water, speedy industrial development, amplified industrial wastes and mining. Heavy metals (HM) are able to remain in the environment longer time and go in the food chain, and ultimately accumulate in humans for biomagnification since they are not biodegradable. HMs contamination is extremely dangerous for humans and the ecology due to its poisonous nature. Traditional methods of cleanup are expensive and could harm the environment. Therefore, phytoremediation is an alternate method via plants to eliminate toxic HMs from the atmosphere as well as to avoid additional contamination, due to its environment-friendly, economic, efficient, exclusive and cost-effective approach. Aquatic plants can be utilized to decontaminate the contaminated sites as they are not food crops, thus reducing the danger of food chain contamination. Here, sources of HMs and their impact on human health have been briefly discussed. Several phytoremediation techniques and factors affecting the phytoremediation methods are also described. In addition, different strategies to decontaminate the metal-polluted water using aquatic plants are also reviewed. Finally, future perspectives for usages of aquatic plants in phytoremediation techniques were briefly summarised
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