673 research outputs found

    Modeling Multi-mode D2D Communications in LTE

    Full text link
    In this work we propose a roadmap towards the analytical understanding of Device-to-Device (D2D) communications in LTE-A networks. Various D2D solutions have been proposed, which include inband and outband D2D transmission modes, each of which exhibits different pros and cons in terms of complexity, interference, and spectral efficiency achieved. We go beyond traditional mode optimization and mode-selection schemes. Specifically, we formulate a general problem for the joint per-user mode selection, connection activation and resource scheduling of connections.Comment: A shorter version of this manuscript is accepted for publication in MAMA workshop collocated with Sigmetrics'1

    Characteristics of a snack food with added soy protein

    Get PDF
    Variations of a potato-based snack food formulated with 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% defatted soy flour and 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% corn meal were deep-fat fried in partially hydrogenated soybean oil and were evaluated for physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics and protein quality. There were no significant differences in texture among the different formulations. The Hunter color values L, a, and b were significantly affected by corn meal level, soy flour level, and their interaction. Only the L value was affected by day (P \u3c .05). The chemical analysis showed that the percentage of protein was affected significantly by soy flour level and corn and soy interactions. The percentage of fat was significantly affected by corn meal and soy flour and their interactions. The percentage moisture was affected significantly by corn meal and corn meal and soy flour interactions. Day significantly affected all three chemical components. The analysis of variance for the sensory analysis showed that color, flavor, and overall acceptability were significantly affected by soy flour level. The chip containing 40% corn meal and 20% soy flour was chosen for further analysis and had a proximate composition of 13.33% protein, 20.33% fat, 2.75% crude fiber, 5.2% moisture, and 2.94% ash. The protein efficiency ratio values were from the casein control (2.18) and the potato-based snack food (2.07) were not statistically different

    The Impact of Aging on Adipose Function and Adipokine Synthesis

    Get PDF
    During the last 40 years, there has been a world-wide increase in both the prevalence of obesity and an increase in the number of persons over the age of 60 due to a decline in deaths from infectious disease and the nutrition transition in low and middle income nations. While the increase in the elderly population indicates improvements in global public health, this population may experience a diminished quality of life due to the negative impacts of obesity on age-associated inflammation. Aging alters adipose tissue composition and function resulting in insulin resistance and ectopic lipid storage. A reduction in brown adipose tissue activity, declining sex hormones levels, and abdominal adipose tissue expansion occur with advancing years through the redistribution of lipids from the subcutaneous to the visceral fat compartment. These changes in adipose tissue function and distribution influence the secretion of adipose tissue derived hormones, or adipokines, that promote a chronic state of low-grade systemic inflammation. Ultimately, obesity accelerates aging by enhancing inflammation and increasing the risk of age-associated diseases. The focus of this review is the impact of aging on adipose tissue distribution and function and how these effects influence the elaboration of pro and anti-inflammatory adipokines

    Modeling D2D communications with LTE and WiFi

    Get PDF
    In this work we propose a roadmap towards the analytical understanding of Device-to-Device (D2D) communications in LTE-A networks. Various D2D solutions have been proposed, which include inband and outband D2D transmission modes, each of which exhibits different pros and cons in terms of complexity, interference, and spectral efficiency achieved. We go beyond traditional mode optimization and mode-selection schemes. Specifically, we formulate a general problem for the joint per-user mode selection, connection activation and resource scheduling of connections using both LTE and WiFi resources

    Floating band D2D:exploring and exploiting the potentials of adaptive D2D-enabled networks

    Get PDF
    In this paper, we propose Floating Band D2D, an adaptive framework to exploit the full potential of Device-to-Device (D2D) transmission modes. We show that inband and outband D2D modes exhibit different pros and cons in terms of complexity, interference, and spectral efficiency. Moreover, none of these modes is suitable as a one-size-fits-all solution for today's cellular networks, due to diverse network requirements and variable users' behavior. Therefore, we unveil the need for going beyond traditional single-band mode-selection schemes. Specifically, we model and formulate a general and adaptive multi-band mode selection problem, namely Floating Band D2D. The problem is NP-hard, so we propose simple yet effective heuristics. Our results show the superiority of the Floating Band D2D framework, which dramatically increases network utility and achieves near complete fairness

    Tie-breaking can maximize fairness without sacrificing throughput in D2D-assisted networks

    Get PDF
    Opportunistic schedulers such as MaxRate and Proportional Fair are known for trading off between throughput and fairness of users in cellular networks. In this paper, we propose a novel solution that integrates opportunistic scheduling design principles and cooperative D2D communication capabilities in order to maximize fairness without sacrificing throughput. Specifically, we develop a mathematical approach and design a smart tie-breaking scheme which maximizes the fairness achieved by the MaxRate scheduler. However, our approach could be applied to improve fairness of any scheduler. In addition, we show that users that cooperatively form D2D clusters benefit from both higher throughput and fairness. Our scheduling scheme is simple to implement, scales linearly with the number of clusters, and is able to double the throughput of Equal Time schedulers and to outperform by 20% or more Proportional Fair schedulers, while providing a user fairness index comparable to or better than Proportional Fair

    Modeling Multi-mode D2D Communications in LTE

    Get PDF
    ABSTRACT In this work we propose a roadmap towards the analytical understanding of Device-to-Device (D2D) communications in LTE-A networks. Various D2D solutions have been proposed, which include inband and outband D2D transmission modes, each of which exhibits different pros and cons in terms of complexity, interference, and spectral efficiency achieved. We go beyond traditional mode optimization and mode-selection schemes. Specifically, we formulate a general problem for the joint per-user mode selection, connection activation and resource scheduling of connections

    Combined exposure to cigarette smoke and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae drives development of a COPD phenotype in mice

    Get PDF
    Abstract Background Cigarette smoke (CS) is the major etiologic factor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). CS-exposed mice develop emphysema and mild pulmonary inflammation but no airway obstruction, which is also a prominent feature of COPD. Therefore, CS may interact with other factors, particularly respiratory infections, in the pathogenesis of airway remodeling in COPD. Methods C57BL/6 mice were exposed to CS for 2 h a day, 5 days a week for 8 weeks. Mice were also exposed to heat-killed non-typeable H. influenzae (HK-NTHi) on days 7 and 21. One day after the last exposure to CS, mice were sacrificed and lung inflammation and mechanics, emphysematous changes, and goblet cell metaplasia were assessed. Mice exposed to CS or HK-NTHi alone or room air served as controls. To determine the susceptibility to viral infections, we also challenged these mice with rhinovirus (RV). Results Unlike mice exposed to CS or HK-NTHi alone, animals exposed to CS/HK-NTHi developed emphysema, lung inflammation and goblet cell metaplasia in both large and small airways. CS/HK-NTHi-exposed mice also expressed increased levels of mucin genes and cytokines compared to mice in other groups. CS/HK-NTHi-exposed mice infected with RV demonstrated increased viral persistence, sustained neutrophilia, and further increments in mucin gene and chemokine expression compared to other groups. Conclusions These findings indicate that in addition to CS, bacteria may also contribute to development of COPD, particularly changes in airways. Mice exposed to CS/HK-NTHi are also more susceptible to subsequent viral infection than mice exposed to either CS or HK-NTHi alone.http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/109487/1/12931_2013_Article_1465.pd

    Combined exposure to cigarette smoke and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae drives development of a COPD phenotype in mice

    Full text link
    Abstract Background Cigarette smoke (CS) is the major etiologic factor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). CS-exposed mice develop emphysema and mild pulmonary inflammation but no airway obstruction, which is also a prominent feature of COPD. Therefore, CS may interact with other factors, particularly respiratory infections, in the pathogenesis of airway remodeling in COPD. Methods C57BL/6 mice were exposed to CS for 2 h a day, 5 days a week for 8 weeks. Mice were also exposed to heat-killed non-typeable H. influenzae (HK-NTHi) on days 7 and 21. One day after the last exposure to CS, mice were sacrificed and lung inflammation and mechanics, emphysematous changes, and goblet cell metaplasia were assessed. Mice exposed to CS or HK-NTHi alone or room air served as controls. To determine the susceptibility to viral infections, we also challenged these mice with rhinovirus (RV). Results Unlike mice exposed to CS or HK-NTHi alone, animals exposed to CS/HK-NTHi developed emphysema, lung inflammation and goblet cell metaplasia in both large and small airways. CS/HK-NTHi-exposed mice also expressed increased levels of mucin genes and cytokines compared to mice in other groups. CS/HK-NTHi-exposed mice infected with RV demonstrated increased viral persistence, sustained neutrophilia, and further increments in mucin gene and chemokine expression compared to other groups. Conclusions These findings indicate that in addition to CS, bacteria may also contribute to development of COPD, particularly changes in airways. Mice exposed to CS/HK-NTHi are also more susceptible to subsequent viral infection than mice exposed to either CS or HK-NTHi alone.http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/134587/1/12931_2013_Article_1465.pd
    • …
    corecore