1,050 research outputs found

    Trophoblast lineage-specific differentiation and associated alterations in preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction.

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    The human placenta is a poorly-understood organ, but one that is critical for proper development and growth of the fetus in-utero. The epithelial cell type that contributes to primary placental functions is called "trophoblast," including two main subtypes, villous and extravillous trophoblast. Cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast comprise the villous compartment and contribute to gas and nutrient exchange, while extravillous trophoblast invade and remodel the uterine wall and vessels, in order to supply maternal blood to the growing fetus. Abnormal differentiation of trophoblast contributes to placental dysfunction and is associated with complications of pregnancy, including preeclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction (FGR). This review describes what is known about the cellular organization of the placenta during both normal development and in the setting of PE/FGR. It also explains known trophoblast lineage-specific markers and pathways regulating their differentiation, and how these are altered in the setting of PE/FGR, focusing on studies which have used human placental tissues. Finally, it also highlights remaining questions and needed resources to advance this field

    Cosmic variance of the galaxy cluster weak lensing signal

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    Intrinsic variations of the projected density profiles of clusters of galaxies at fixed mass are a source of uncertainty for cluster weak lensing. We present a semi-analytical model to account for this effect, based on a combination of variations in halo concentration, ellipticity and orientation, and the presence of correlated haloes. We calibrate the parameters of our model at the 10 per cent level to match the empirical cosmic variance of cluster profiles at M_200m=10^14...10^15 h^-1 M_sol, z=0.25...0.5 in a cosmological simulation. We show that weak lensing measurements of clusters significantly underestimate mass uncertainties if intrinsic profile variations are ignored, and that our model can be used to provide correct mass likelihoods. Effects on the achievable accuracy of weak lensing cluster mass measurements are particularly strong for the most massive clusters and deep observations (with ~20 per cent uncertainty from cosmic variance alone at M_200m=10^15 h^-1 M_sol and z=0.25), but significant also under typical ground-based conditions. We show that neglecting intrinsic profile variations leads to biases in the mass-observable relation constrained with weak lensing, both for intrinsic scatter and overall scale (the latter at the 15 per cent level). These biases are in excess of the statistical errors of upcoming surveys and can be avoided if the cosmic variance of cluster profiles is accounted for.Comment: 14 pages, 6 figures; submitted to MNRA

    The least informative distribution and correlation coefficient of measurement results

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    Correlations play a significant role in data analysis and the evaluation and expression of the uncertainty, yet estimating them is often difficult. This paper provides examples of how to infer the measurand value, given only the uncertainties and correlation ranges of the measurement results. The least informative data-distribution is not Gaussian, but the marginal distributions are. Explicit results are given in the case of a data pair, where the inferred correlation coefficient is the midpoint of the given range

    Strategi Komunikasi Kampanye Pengendalian Minuman Beralkohol (Perda Nomor 11 Tahun 2012) oleh Pemerintah Kabupaten Sikka

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    Campaign strategy is a communication action plan to influence others. The aim of the research was to find out and axplain the communication strategy by the government of Sikka Regency in the campaign of alcoholic drink based on Local Regulation Number 11 Year 2012 in Sikka Regency, the implementation of socialization campaign of the control of alcoholic drikn, and the inhibiting factors of the campaign of control of alcoholic drink in Sikka Regency.The research used descriptive qualitative method trough interview and field observation. The results of the research that the government of Sikka regency to implementation of communication only linear with face to face. All sectors were excluded. Not perform segmentation and identification of audiences. There are several factors faced in the implementation of campaign such as the low level of community\u27s knowledge and participation, limited time and cost, ego sector, long bureaucratic system, and strong tradition and culture in the community. Campaign of the control alcoholic drink by the govermment of Sikka not through a good communication plan and compherensiv

    Selective Breeding to Improve Productive and Reproductive Performances and Survivability of Indigenous Sakini Chicken

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    Indigenous chickens are quite popular in Family Poultry Production System (FPPS) in Nepal, but are constrained with their low productive performance. The present study evaluated the productive and reproductive performance of Sakini chicken in different filial generations and sexes. In addition, research also aimed at understanding the effect of generations on above performances. Initially, base populations (G-0) of Sakini were maintained by collecting eight weeks old birds from different agro-ecologial zones of Nepal. Performance of the birds of G-0 was evaluated based on weekly body weight (12-24 weeks), laying performance, fertility, hatchability, hatch weight and survivability. Selected birds of base population (G-0) were used to produce first (G-1), second (G-2) and third (G-3) generations through selective breeding in each generation. Similarly, body weights at hatching, 12 weeks, 16 weeks, 20 week and 24 weeks were significantly (p<0.001) improved from G0 to G3 and were also significantly (p<0.001) differ for sex (males were always heavier than females). Likewise, there was significant (p<0.05) improvement in egg production (per hen per year), age at first lay (days), body weight at sexual maturity, egg number and egg weight at 90 days of laying in progressive generations. Fertility, hatchability and survivability significantly (p<0.05) improved in selected generations in comparison to base population, whereas, no significant difference was obtained within the different selected population. Thus, indigenous Sakini chicken under this experiment performed better with respect to survivability, fertility and hatchability in later generations that provides ample scope of advancing selective breeding activities within the indigenous population in order to bring significant improvement in the overall productive performance of Sakini chicken in Nepal

    Comment on: "Quantum dynamics of a general time-dependent coupled oscillator"

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    By using dynamical invariants theory, Hassoul et al. [1,2] investigate the quantum dynamics of two (2D) and three (3D) dimensional time-dependent coupled oscillators. They claim that, in the 2D case, introducing two pairs of annihilation and creation operators uncouples the original invariant operator so that it becomes the one that describes two independent subsystems. For the 3D case, the authors pretend that they have obtained a diagonalized invariant which is exactly the sum of three simple harmonic oscillators. We show that their investigations suffer from basic errors and therefore the found results are not valid .Comment: 11 page