98 research outputs found

    Prioritizing Metro Service Quality Attributes to Enhance Commuter Experience: TOPSIS Ranking and Importance Satisfaction Analysis methods

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    A metro infrastructure, facility and service quality investigation based on commuter perception was conducted in this study to explore and prioritize the key attributes influencing overall metro service quality in typical Indian context. Based on the critical state of the art review, 12 key attributes were identified and they were accommodated in a paper based questionnaire to elicit commuter perception of importance and satisfaction by using a five point Likert scale. Subsequently, TOPSIS, an extensively adopted Multi attribute decision making technique, was carried out to rank the attributes with respect to perceived importance and satisfaction. Then an importance satisfaction analysis (ISA) was conducted to further classify the attributes in four quadrants based on their perceived degree of importance and satisfaction using an ISA matrix. Finally, the derived results from the TOPSIS and ISA analysis were combined and compared to obtain a prioritized set of attributes requiring intervention for better metro service quality in Indian context. Results of this study clearly indicated the relative strengths and weaknesses of each metro service/infrastructure specific attribute and presented the probable role of metro authorities for each of them. Attributes such as, Metro fare, Connection to metro and Metro frequency were observed to be the most important but were not performing satisfactorily, indicating that more emphasis is required on these attributes for improving the overall quality of travel by metro rail in Indian context. Hence, this methodology would be instrumental to detect a set of priority areas of improvement in metro rail service, which could contribute to retain the existing commuters and attract new metro users

    Bio-nanotechnology application in wastewater treatment

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    The nanoparticles have received high interest in the ïŹeld of medicine and water puriïŹcation, however, the nanomaterials produced by chemical and physical methods are considered hazardous, expensive, and leave behind harmful substances to the environment. This chapter aimed to focus on green-synthesized nanoparticles and their medical applications. Moreover, the chapter highlighted the applicability of the metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) in the inactivation of microbial cells due to their high surface and small particle size. Modifying nanomaterials produced by green-methods is safe, inexpensive, and easy. Therefore, the control and modiïŹcation of nanoparticles and their properties were also discussed

    Does Cultural Competency Training of Health Professionals Improve Patient Outcomes? A Systematic Review and Proposed Algorithm for Future Research

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    BACKGROUND: Cultural competency training has been proposed as a way to improve patient outcomes. There is a need for evidence showing that these interventions reduce health disparities. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to conduct a systematic review addressing the effects of cultural competency training on patient-centered outcomes; assess quality of studies and strength of effect; and propose a framework for future research. DESIGN: The authors performed electronic searches in the MEDLINE/PubMed, ERIC, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Web of Science databases for original articles published in English between 1990 and 2010, and a bibliographic hand search. Studies that reported cultural competence educational interventions for health professionals and measured impact on patients and/or health care utilization as primary or secondary outcomes were included. MEASUREMENTS: Four authors independently rated studies for quality using validated criteria and assessed the training effect on patient outcomes. Due to study heterogeneity, data were not pooled; instead, qualitative synthesis and analysis were conducted. RESULTS: Seven studies met inclusion criteria. Three involved physicians, two involved mental health professionals and two involved multiple health professionals and students. Two were quasi-randomized, two were cluster randomized, and three were pre/post field studies. Study quality was low to moderate with none of high quality; most studies did not adequately control for potentially confounding variables. Effect size ranged from no effect to moderately beneficial (unable to assess in two studies). Three studies reported positive (beneficial) effects; none demonstrated a negative (harmful) effect. CONCLUSION: There is limited research showing a positive relationship between cultural competency training and improved patient outcomes, but there remains a paucity of high quality research. Future work should address challenges limiting quality. We propose an algorithm to guide educators in designing and evaluating curricula, to rigorously demonstrate the impact on patient outcomes and health disparities

    Two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations in central Pb-Pb collisions at sNN\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76 TeV

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    The first measurement of two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations in central Pb-Pb collisions at sNN=2.76\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider is presented. We observe a growing trend with energy now not only for the longitudinal and the outward but also for the sideward pion source radius. The pion homogeneity volume and the decoupling time are significantly larger than those measured at RHIC.Comment: 17 pages, 5 captioned figures, 1 table, authors from page 12, published version, figures at http://aliceinfo.cern.ch/ArtSubmission/node/388

    Suppression of charged particle production at large transverse momentum in central Pb-Pb collisions at sNN=2.76\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76 TeV

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    Inclusive transverse momentum spectra of primary charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at sNN\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}} = 2.76 TeV have been measured by the ALICE Collaboration at the LHC. The data are presented for central and peripheral collisions, corresponding to 0-5% and 70-80% of the hadronic Pb-Pb cross section. The measured charged particle spectra in ∣η∣<0.8|\eta|<0.8 and 0.3<pT<200.3 < p_T < 20 GeV/cc are compared to the expectation in pp collisions at the same sNN\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}, scaled by the number of underlying nucleon-nucleon collisions. The comparison is expressed in terms of the nuclear modification factor RAAR_{\rm AA}. The result indicates only weak medium effects (RAA≈R_{\rm AA} \approx 0.7) in peripheral collisions. In central collisions, RAAR_{\rm AA} reaches a minimum of about 0.14 at pT=6p_{\rm T}=6-7GeV/cc and increases significantly at larger pTp_{\rm T}. The measured suppression of high-pTp_{\rm T} particles is stronger than that observed at lower collision energies, indicating that a very dense medium is formed in central Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC.Comment: 15 pages, 5 captioned figures, 3 tables, authors from page 10, published version, figures at http://aliceinfo.cern.ch/ArtSubmission/node/98

    Elliptic flow of charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV

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    We report the first measurement of charged particle elliptic flow in Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The measurement is performed in the central pseudorapidity region (|η\eta|<0.8) and transverse momentum range 0.2< pTp_{\rm T}< 5.0 GeV/cc. The elliptic flow signal v2_2, measured using the 4-particle correlation method, averaged over transverse momentum and pseudorapidity is 0.087 ±\pm 0.002 (stat) ±\pm 0.004 (syst) in the 40-50% centrality class. The differential elliptic flow v2(pT)_2(p_{\rm T}) reaches a maximum of 0.2 near pTp_{\rm T} = 3 GeV/cc. Compared to RHIC Au-Au collisions at 200 GeV, the elliptic flow increases by about 30%. Some hydrodynamic model predictions which include viscous corrections are in agreement with the observed increase.Comment: 10 pages, 4 captioned figures, published version, figures at http://aliceinfo.cern.ch/ArtSubmission/node/389

    Transcriptional upregulation of human tissue kallikrein 6 in ovarian cancer: clinical and mechanistic aspects

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    The human tissue kallikrein family (KLK for protein; KLK for gene) includes 15 members. Twelve kallikreins, including KLK6, are concurrently upregulated in ovarian cancer. However, the mechanism of this phenomenon remains unclear. In this study, we measured KLK6 expression in a large series of ovarian tissue cytosols and examined possible mechanisms of KLK6 up-regulation in ovarian cancer. Using a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with two monoclonal antibodies, we quantified KLK6 expression in ovarian tissue cytosols, and confirmed the upregulation of KLK6 in ovarian cancer and its unfavourable prognostic value. We then examined KLK6 mRNA expression using reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and established its good concordance with KLK6 protein expression. This finding suggested that the KLK6 gene is under transcriptional regulation. We then scrutinised a few mechanisms that could explain KLK6 upregulation. The relative abundance of two KLK6 mRNA transcripts was studied; we found the same differential expression pattern in all samples, regardless of KLK6 levels. Genomic mutation screening of all exons and the 5â€Č-flanking region of the KLK6 gene identified two linked single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the 5â€Č-untranslated region, but neither correlated with KLK6 expression. Ovarian cell lines were separately treated with five steroid hormones. None of the treatments produced significant effects on KLK6 expression. We conclude that KLK6 is transcriptionally upregulated in ovarian cancer, but probably not through alternative mRNA transcript expression, genomic mutation, or steroid hormone induction