41 research outputs found

    Early increase and later decrease in GSK-3β activity.

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    <p>Western blot of total GSK-3β and GSK-3β phosphorylation at ser9 (a: blot, b: quantification of phospho corrected for total GSK-3β). P-GSK-3β at Ser 9 inhibits phosphorylation of its substrate GS1 as depicted in Figure 5c. These data were derived from the kinomics chip. Data are presented as mean ± SD of n = 3.</p

    Provisional signal transduction scheme of active signaling pathways during pneumonia.

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    <p>Activation is depicted in green and inhibition in red, direction of events is calculated in relation to the noninfected control. Events from all timepoints (3, 6, 24 and 48 hours) were used to construct this scheme representing the entire host response dynamics of pneumococcal pneumonia. Important are the overall increment of chemotoxic stress and the initiation of the Th1 response. Spot numbers and activities (up ↑ or down ↓) are presented with corresponding kinases and timepoints. WNT signaling and the cell cycle are reduced throughout <i>S. pneumoniae</i> pneumonia.</p


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    <p>Hierarchal clustering according to Johnsons of phosphorylation states of whole lung lysates <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0018519#pone.0018519-Johnson1" target="_blank">[18]</a> (a). Venn diagram of spots phosphorylated at measured time points. 3 hours is depicted in blue, 6 hours in yellow, 24 hours in green and 48 hours in red (b). Kinase activities spanning multiple time points (intermediate colors) are listed.</p

    Decrease in CDK activity with increasing pneumonia.

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    <p>Western blot (a) and quantification of all CDK phosphorylated substrates (b) revealed a decrease in CDK activity. Quantification was performed for all positive signals on the blot and corrected for β-actin. Data are represented as mean ± SD of n = 3.</p

    β-catenin levels decrease over time.

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    <p>Western blot (a) and quantification (b) of β-catenin. β-catenin protein levels decrease during <i>S. pneumoniae</i> pneumonia. Indirectly, represent a decrease of potentially active β-catenin. Data are represented as mean ± SD of n = 3.</p

    Characteristics of the included animal studies.

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    <p>* = not mentioned;</p><p>** = only abstract available;</p><p><sup>#</sup> = indicate tumor number;</p><p><sup>§</sup> = include two different xenograft model (HCC-LM3 and SMMC7721); MET = metformin; DEN = diethylnitrosamine (liver-specific carcinogen); FBS = fasting blood glucose; HFD = high-fat diet; TV = tumor volume; TW = tumor weight; TS = tumor size; TI = tumor incidence; TN = tumor number.</p><p>Characteristics of the included animal studies.</p