224 research outputs found

    Journal Staff

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    Purpose - This article aims to investigate how R&amp;D employees use their social networks to acquire user information and how this information is used in the development of new products. Design/methodology/approach - A single case study was conducted within a business unit at a multinational medical technology company. Data were collected through a mixed method. Findings - The results show that many R&amp;D employees lack social networks through which they can acquire information about the users' needs. However, some R&amp;D employees establish cost-efficient relationships to people with a direct experience of using the company's products. These relationships are established over time and are often used in a rather informal way to acquire user information. Moreover, the results show how R&amp;D employees are purposefully complementing these relationships with more occasional interactions with people who hold direct and indirect use experiences. Research limitations/implications - As with most single-case studies, it will be important to replicate this investigation in other contexts to clarify the generalizability of the findings. Practical implications - The article shows how important it is that management provides R&amp;D employees with opportunities to establish, nurture and utilize relationships conducive to information about the users' needs. The article provides some advice on how this can be accomplished. Originality/value - This is one of the first articles that clearly explain how R&amp;D employees use their social networks to acquire user information for the development of new products.QC 20150112. Updated from accepted to published.</p

    Meteorological tables

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    https://digitalrepository.unm.edu/unm_bulletin/1038/thumbnail.jp

    Model Based Cost Estimations - An International Comparison

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    The study aims to clarify in a qualitative way how the implementation work of model based cost estimation is proceeding internationally. A comparison of the BIM-use in Sweden and abroad was performed

    Further observations on increased blood counts due to high altitude

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    https://digitalrepository.unm.edu/unm_bulletin/1013/thumbnail.jp

    HÀktning och falska erkÀnnanden - samband dÀremellan och domstolens prövning av erkÀnnandet

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    Denna uppsats behandlar erkĂ€nnandet i svensk straffrĂ€tt och hur domstolen prövar ett erkĂ€nnande. Uppsatsen innehĂ„ller Ă€ven en undersökning av den svenska hĂ€ktningssituationen och förekomsten av falska erkĂ€nnanden i svenska domstolar samt samspelet dem emellan. Syftet med arbetet Ă€r att redogöra för hur domstolens prövning av ett erkĂ€nnande gĂ„r till samt om och i sĂ„ fall hur de svenska hĂ€ktena och hĂ€ktesreglerna pĂ„verkar mĂ€nniskans vilja att erkĂ€nna brott, Ă€ven sĂ„dana man inte har begĂ„tt. Hur domstolen ska pröva ett erkĂ€nnande Ă€r inbegripet i principen om den fria bevisprövningen. Följden blir att lagregler för prövningen saknas. Doktrinen behandlar frĂ„gan men Ă€ven praxis Ă€r relevant att studera. NĂ€r domstolen prövar ett erkĂ€nnande ska den göra det i tvĂ„ steg. Det första steget för domstolen Ă€r att slĂ„ fast huruvida ett uttalande ska utgöra ett erkĂ€nnande eller inte samt att personen som erkĂ€nner förstĂ„r innebörden av sitt erkĂ€nnande. I andra steget ska domstolen pröva sannolikheten av erkĂ€nnandet. HĂ€r anvĂ€nder domstolen en tillförlitlighetsbedömning som frĂ„n början Ă€r tĂ€nkt för prövning av vittnesutsagor. Domstolen ska Ă€ven stĂ€lla frĂ„gorna ”nĂ€r” och ”hur” erkĂ€nnandet avlagts. Flera fall finns dĂ€r domstolen vid prövningen upptĂ€cker att ett erkĂ€nnande inte Ă€r riktigt. Det vĂ€cker frĂ„gan varför mĂ€nniskor avlĂ€gger falska erkĂ€nnanden. Personer kan erkĂ€nna trots avsaknaden av yttre press. Andra erkĂ€nnanden avlĂ€ggs till följd av en yttre press den misstĂ€nkte upplever och vill slippa. Personer kan Ă€ven erkĂ€nna sedan de sĂ„ starkt börjat ifrĂ„gasĂ€tta sina egna minnen att de tror att de sjĂ€lva begĂ„tt brottet i frĂ„ga. De tvĂ„ senare exemplen Ă€r intressanta för studien av samspelet mellan falska erkĂ€nnanden och den miljö en hĂ€ktad person befinner sig i. Dessa erkĂ€nnanden avlĂ€ggs av personer med bl.a. förhöjd suggestibilitet. En hĂ€ktessituation kan ha psykiska pĂ„verkan pĂ„ den hĂ€ktade. HĂ€ktet utgör en s.k. sensorisk deprivation vilket innebĂ€r att en person frĂ„ntas normal kontakt med omvĂ€rlden. En sĂ„dan begrĂ€nsning kan leda till diverse psykiska Ă„kommor som t.ex. förhöjd suggestibilitet. Domstolen prövar erkĂ€nnandet för att sĂ€kerstĂ€lla dess riktighet. Dock kan man se att nivĂ„n pĂ„ prövningen varierar och att ett erkĂ€nnande kan presumeras vara riktigt. Insikten om den stora pĂ„verkan en hĂ€ktningssituation har för den hĂ€ktades psyke och den risk det innebĂ€r för falska erkĂ€nnanden leder till en fundering. Beaktar domstolen den misstĂ€nktes psykiska tillstĂ„nd vid prövningen av erkĂ€nnandet?This thesis deals with confession in Swedish criminal law and the proceeding of it by the court. The thesis also includes a survey of the Swedish detention, the existence of false confessions in the Swedish courts and their interaction. The purpose of this work is to describe how the Court precedes the confession and whether and if so, how the Swedish detention rules are affecting people to confess to crimes, even ones they did not commit. How the court will proceed a confession is involved in the principle of free evaluation of evidence. Because of this legal rules for the evaluation are missing. Doctrine addresses the issue but also established practice is relevant to study. When considering a confession the evaluation should be made in two steps. The first step for the court is to determine whether or not a statement shall constitute a confession or not and that the person whom confessed understands the meaning of his confession. In the second step, the court must consider the probability of the confession. For this the court is using a reliability assessment that is initially intended for the examination of oral testimony. The court must also consider the questions "when" and "how" recognition was absolved. Not every confession is true which begs the question why people should pass a false confession. People do confess despite the absence of external pressure. Other confessions are passed as a result of a perceived external pressures that the suspect would escape from if he or she confesses. People can even believe they committed a crime and confess due to lacking of own memories. The later two examples are relevant for the study of the interaction between false confessions and the custody. Persons who absolve them suffer from elevated suggestibility. The custody amount to a so-called sensory deprivation. Sensory deprivation is when a person is deprived of normal contact with the outside world. Such a restriction can lead to various mental disorders such as elevated suggestibility. The proceeding of the confession by the court is made to secure its accuracy. However, one can see that the level of inquiry examination varies and that confessions sometimes can be presumed to be correct. The realization of the large impact a custody situation has for the prisoner’s mental wellness and the increasing risk for false confessions led to a thought. Why don’t the court consider the prisoner’s psychological status more when preceding a confession

    La dĂ©coration intĂ©rieure au XVIIIe siĂšcle : l’architecte et le sculpteur

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    Pour la dĂ©coration intĂ©rieure, les traitĂ©s conseillent aux propriĂ©taires de s’adjoindre les services d’un bon architecte, aidĂ© d’habiles ouvriers et, notamment, au XVIIIe siĂšcle, d’un bon sculpteur d’ornements. L’architecte doit possĂ©der une excellente formation dans les arts libĂ©raux et une longue expĂ©rience pratique ; les ouvriers doivent connaĂźtre tous les gestes de leur mĂ©tier et possĂ©der quelques rudiments thĂ©oriques. Cette rĂ©partition idĂ©ale des compĂ©tences et de l’autoritĂ© ne correspond toutefois que rarement aux situations particuliĂšres documentĂ©es dans les archives. Souvent, la conception et l’exĂ©cution de la dĂ©coration sont confiĂ©es Ă  un entrepreneur, comme Jean Jaquet (1754-1839), dont la formation assez Ă©tendue ne prĂ©sente toutefois pas l’universalisme prĂŽnĂ© par les traitĂ©s

    ÅlĂ€gga internetleverantörer att blockera webbplatser? - En analys av de rĂ€ttsliga förutsĂ€ttningarna och avvĂ€gningarna

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    InternetanvĂ€ndandet har under de senaste decennierna ökat explosionsartat. Det Ă€r nĂ„got som har lett till att allt fler har valt att göra kommers pĂ„ att olovligen sprida material som Ă€r skyddat av upphovsrĂ€tten. NĂ€r olovligt material sprids via internet kan det vara svĂ„rt för rĂ€ttighetsinnehavaren att nĂ„ fram till och fĂ„ den egentlige intrĂ„ngsgöraren att sluta med intrĂ„nget. MĂ„nga gĂ„nger Ă€r det den som vidarebefordrar material som har den största möjligheten att stoppa spridningen. Uppsatsen redogör för och analyserar de regler som Ă€r relevanta pĂ„ omrĂ„det. Det Ă€r oklart i vad mĂ„n svensk domstol fĂ„r förelĂ€gga en internetleverantör att blockera en webbplats dĂ€r upphovsrĂ€ttsintrĂ„ng begĂ„s. I lag (1960:729) om upphovsrĂ€tt till litterĂ€ra och konstnĂ€rliga verk Ă„terfinns 53b §, varigenom lagstiftaren har stĂ€llt upp en möjlighet för upphovsrĂ€ttsinnehavare att yrka att domstolen utfĂ€rdar ett vitesförbud mot en mellanhand som anses medverka till ett intrĂ„ng att fortsĂ€tta med det. Paragrafen Ă€r allmĂ€nt hĂ„llen varför det Ă€r ovisst om den Ă€r möjlig att tillĂ€mpa vid utfĂ€rdande av vitesförbud mot en internetleverantör. I tvĂ„ tidigare fall har den svenska domstolen tillĂ€mpat paragrafen och utfĂ€rdat sĂ„dana förbud mot internetleverantörer. I dessa fall har det dock förelegat speciella omstĂ€ndigheter vilket gjort att avgörandena har en relativt liten trĂ€ffyta. I en nyligen avkunnad EU-dom, C-314/12 UPC, har EU-domstolen förklarat att nationell domstol fĂ„r utfĂ€rda ett förelĂ€ggande mot en internetleverantör att blockera en webbplats. Problemet Ă€r att EU i de pĂ„ omrĂ„det relevanta direktiven har uppstĂ€llt en frihet för medlemsstaterna att sjĂ€lva vĂ€lja hur sanktionsmöjligheterna ska se ut, varför ingen generell ledning kan hĂ€mtas heller dĂ€r. Utöver behandling av regler och praxis innehĂ„ller uppsatsen Ă€ven en analys av de intresseavvĂ€gningar som mĂ„ste göras. Upp till tre parters intressen kan behöva beaktas; rĂ€ttighetsinnehavarens ensamrĂ€tt, internetleverantörens nĂ€ringsfrihet samt tredje mans informations- och yttrandefrihet. Sammanfattningsvis nĂ„r uppsatsen fram till, trots lagstiftning som berör omrĂ„det och avgöranden som Ă€ven de behandlar frĂ„gan, att rĂ€ttslĂ€get inte Ă€r klart. Med tanke pĂ„ att all den information som varje sekund passerar genom internetleverantörers nĂ€t, dĂ€r upphovsrĂ€ttsligt material olovligen sprids finns ett tydligt behov av att faststĂ€lla vad som gĂ€ller. Som lĂ€get Ă€r nu finns en stor ovisshet hos internetleverantör som fasar för att behöva blockera webbplatser vilket kan leda till kundbortfall och ökade kostnader, men Ă€ven hos rĂ€ttighetsinnehavarna som utan en möjlighet att kunna rikta förelĂ€gganden mot en mellanhand mĂ„nga gĂ„nger stĂ„r helt maktlösa.During the last two decades the use of internet has increased enormously. As a result more and more people have started commercialize on transferring information that is protected by copyrights. It is difficult for the owner of the copyright to exam from where the infringement origins. The one that has the best chance to stop an infringement is often the forwarder of the information. This thesis examines and analysis the law which are relevant in relation to the subject. It is to some extent unclear whether or not Swedish court can order an internet service provider (ISP) to block its customers’ access to a copyright-infringing website. Thorough 53b§ act on copyright in literary and artistic works (SFS 1960:729) the owner of the copyright is granted a sanction against a party who is contributing to an act constituting an infringement. The article is not so precise why it gets a broad scope and therefore does not clarify whether it is possible to apply on an ISP. The Swedish court has in two earlier cases issued an injunction prohibiting an ISP from providing access to a copyright-infringing website. Though the cases did consist of exceptional circumstances therefore the scope is limited. In a recent case, C-314/12 UPC, CJEU declared that a national court may order an ISP to block its customers’ access to an infringing website. Despite that it is not possible to get guidance because EU has given each member state freedom to incorporate applicable rules. A part from interpretation of law and case law the thesis consists of an analysis regarding the conflict of interests arising from the issue. No less than three parties’ interests must be considered; the exclusive right appurtenant to the owner of the copyright; the ISPs’ freedom to conduct business and third parties freedom of speech and information. In conclusion, even though both law and case law have touched the issue, the legal position is still unanswered. Considering the importance the outcome could have for the parties a clarification is desirable

    Return to play after thigh muscle injury in elite football players: implementation and validation of the Munich muscle injury classification

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    Background: Owing to the complexity and heterogeneity of muscle injuries, a generally accepted classification system is still lacking. Aims To prospectively implement and validate a novel muscle injury classification and to evaluate its predictive value for return to professional football. Methods: The recently described Munich muscle injury classification was prospectively evaluated in 31 European professional male football teams during the 2011/2012 season. Thigh muscle injury types were recorded by team medical staff and correlated to individual player exposure and resultant time-loss. Results: In total, 393 thigh muscle injuries occurred. The muscle classification system was well received with a 100% response rate. Two-thirds of thigh muscle injuries were classified as structural and were associated with longer lay-off times compared to functional muscle disorders (p<0.001). Significant differences were observed between structural injury subgroups (minor partial, moderate partial and complete injuries) with increasing lay-off time associated with more severe structural injury. Median lay-off time of functional disorders was 5–8 days without significant differences between subgroups. There was no significant difference in the absence time between anterior and posterior thigh injuries. Conclusions: The Munich muscle classification demonstrates a positive prognostic validity for return to play after thigh muscle injury in professional male football players. Structural injuries are associated with longer average lay-off times than functional muscle disorders. Subclassification of structural injuries correlates with return to play, while subgrouping of functional disorders shows less prognostic relevance. Functional disorders are often underestimated clinically and require further systematic study

    Family-Focused Public Health: Supporting Homes and Families in Policy and Practice

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    Life expectancy in the US is on the decline. Mental health issues associated with opioid abuse and suicide have been implicated for this decline necessitating new approaches and procedures. While Public Health 3.0 provides a call to action for stakeholders to work closely together to address such complex problems as these, less attention has been given to engaging and supporting the most important stakeholders and primary producers of health within the US: families and households. The idea that health begins at home is discussed from the perspective of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention levels. Primary prevention where research provides evidence for the role of the family in healthy child development. Secondary and tertiary prevention where research offers evidence for the role of the family in caregiving. Despite this evidence, greater focus and attention must be placed on the family at all prevention levels as an often overlooked setting of public health practice and level of influence. Prevention across all levels is enhanced as public health practitioners think family when designing and implementing public health policy. Four family impact principles are presented to help guide planning and implementation decisions to nourish family engagement
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