23,360 research outputs found

### Characteristic length of an AdS/CFT superconductor

We investigate in more detail the holographic model of a superconductor
recently found by Hartnoll, Herzog, and Horowitz [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101,
031601], which is constructed from a condensate of a charged scalar field in
AdS_4-Schwarzschild background. By analytically studying the perturbation of
the gravitational system near the critical temperature T_c, we obtain the
superconducting coherence length proportional to 1/\sqrt{1-T/T_c} via AdS/CFT
correspondence. By adding a small external homogeneous magnetic field to the
system, we find that a stationary diamagnetic current proportional to the
square of the order parameter is induced by the magnetic field. These results
agree with Ginzburg-Landau theory and strongly support the idea that a
superconductor can be described by a charged scalar field on a black hole via
AdS/CFT duality.Comment: 9 pages, no figure; v2: typos corrected; v3: version to appear in
PRD, an early discussion based on convensional superconductor with dynamical
photon removed and an argument about the type of the holographic
superconductor adde

### Relativistic stars in f(R) gravity, and absence thereof

Several f(R) modified gravity models have been proposed which realize the
correct cosmological evolution and satisfy solar system and laboratory tests.
Although nonrelativistic stellar configurations can be constructed, we argue
that relativistic stars cannot be present in such f(R) theories. This problem
appears due to the dynamics of the effective scalar degree of freedom in the
strong gravity regime. Our claim thus raises doubts on the viability of f(R)
models.Comment: 9 pages, 7 figures, v2: references added, minor corrections, version
accepted for publication in PR

### Subaru and Keck Observations of the Peculiar Type Ia Supernova 2006gz at Late Phases

Recently, a few peculiar Type Ia supernovae (SNe) that show exceptionally
large peak luminosity have been discovered. Their luminosity requires more than
1 Msun of 56Ni ejected during the explosion, suggesting that they might have
originated from super-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs. However, the nature of
these objects is not yet well understood. In particular, no data have been
taken at late phases, about one year after the explosion. We report on Subaru
and Keck optical spectroscopic and photometric observations of the SN Ia
2006gz, which had been classified as being one of these "overluminous" SNe Ia.
The late-time behavior is distinctly different from that of normal SNe Ia,
reinforcing the argument that SN 2006gz belongs to a different subclass than
normal SNe Ia. However, the peculiar features found at late times are not
readily connected to a large amount of 56Ni; the SN is faint, and it lacks [Fe
II] and [Fe III] emission. If the bulk of the radioactive energy escapes the SN
ejecta as visual light, as is the case in normal SNe Ia, the mass of 56Ni does
not exceed ~ 0.3 Msun. We discuss several possibilities to remedy the problem.
With the limited observations, however, we are unable to conclusively identify
which process is responsible. An interesting possibility is that the bulk of
the emission might be shifted to longer wavelengths, unlike the case in other
SNe Ia, which might be related to dense C-rich regions as indicated by the
early-phase data. Alternatively, it might be the case that SN 2006gz, though
peculiar, was actually not substantially overluminous at early times.Comment: 8 pages, 6 figures, 4 tables. Accepted for publication in The
Astrophysical Journa

### Melting Crystal, Quantum Torus and Toda Hierarchy

Searching for the integrable structures of supersymmetric gauge theories and
topological strings, we study melting crystal, which is known as random plane
partition, from the viewpoint of integrable systems. We show that a series of
partition functions of melting crystals gives rise to a tau function of the
one-dimensional Toda hierarchy, where the models are defined by adding suitable
potentials, endowed with a series of coupling constants, to the standard
statistical weight. These potentials can be converted to a commutative
sub-algebra of quantum torus Lie algebra. This perspective reveals a remarkable
connection between random plane partition and quantum torus Lie algebra, and
substantially enables to prove the statement. Based on the result, we briefly
argue the integrable structures of five-dimensional $\mathcal{N}=1$
supersymmetric gauge theories and $A$-model topological strings. The
aforementioned potentials correspond to gauge theory observables analogous to
the Wilson loops, and thereby the partition functions are translated in the
gauge theory to generating functions of their correlators. In topological
strings, we particularly comment on a possibility of topology change caused by
condensation of these observables, giving a simple example.Comment: Final version to be published in Commun. Math. Phys. . A new section
is added and devoted to Conclusion and discussion, where, in particular, a
possible relation with the generating function of the absolute Gromov-Witten
invariants on CP^1 is commented. Two references are added. Typos are
corrected. 32 pages. 4 figure

### Some new results on electron transport in the atmosphere

The penetration, diffusion and slowing down of electrons in a semi-infinite air medium has been studied by the Monte Carlo method. The results are applicable to the atmosphere at altitudes up to 300 km. Most of the results pertain to monoenergetic electron beams injected into the atmosphere at a height of 300 km, either vertically downwards or with a pitch-angle distribution isotropic over the downward hemisphere. Some results were also obtained for various initial pitch angles between 0 deg and 90 deg. Information has been generated concerning the following topics: (1) the backscattering of electrons from the atmosphere, expressed in terms of backscattering coefficients, angular distributions and energy spectra of reflected electrons, for incident energies T(o) between 2 keV and 2 MeV; (2) energy deposition by electrons as a function of the altitude, down to 80 km, for T(o) between 2 keV and 2 MeV; (3) the corresponding energy depostion by electron-produced bremsstrahlung, down to 30 km; (4) the evolution of the electron flux spectrum as function of the atmospheric depth, for T(o) between 2 keV and 20 keV. Energy deposition results are given for incident electron beams with exponential and power-exponential spectra

### Broadband method for precise microwave spectroscopy of superconducting thin films near the critical temperature

We present a high-resolution microwave spectrometer to measure the
frequency-dependent complex conductivity of a superconducting thin film near
the critical temperature. The instrument is based on a broadband measurement of
the complex reflection coefficient, $S_{\rm 11}$, of a coaxial transmission
line, which is terminated to a thin film sample with the electrodes in a
Corbino disk shape. In the vicinity of the critical temperature, the standard
calibration technique using three known standards fails to extract the strong
frequency dependence of the complex conductivity induced by the superconducting
fluctuations. This is because a small unexpected difference between the phase
parts of $S_{\rm 11}$ for a short and load standards gives rise to a large
error in the detailed frequency dependence of the complex conductivity near the
superconducting transition. We demonstrate that a new calibration procedure
using the normal-state conductivity of a sample as a load standard resolves
this difficulty. The high quality performance of this spectrometer, which
covers the frequency range between 0.1 GHz and 10 GHz, the temperature range
down to 10 K, and the magnetic field range up to 1 T, is illustrated by the
experimental results on several thin films of both conventional and high
temperature superconductors.Comment: 13 pages, 14 figure

### New Charged Black Holes with Conformal Scalar Hair

A new class of four-dimensional, hairy, stationary solutions of the
Einstein-Maxwell-Lambda system with a conformally coupled scalar field is
constructed in this paper. The metric belongs to the Plebanski-Demianski family
and hence its static limit has the form of the charged C-metric. It is shown
that, in the static case, a new family of hairy black holes arises. They turn
out to be cohomogeneity-two, with horizons that are neither Einstein nor
homogenous manifolds. The conical singularities in the C-metric can be removed
due to the back reaction of the scalar field providing a new kind of regular,
radiative spacetime. The scalar field carries a continuous parameter
proportional to the usual acceleration present in the C-metric. In the
zero-acceleration limit, the static solution reduces to the dyonic
Bocharova-Bronnikov-Melnikov-Bekenstein solution or the dyonic extension of the
Martinez-Troncoso-Zanelli black holes, depending on the value of the
cosmological constant.Comment: Published versio

### Static and symmetric wormholes respecting energy conditions in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

Properties of $n(\ge 5)$-dimensional static wormhole solutions are
investigated in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity with or without a cosmological
constant $\Lambda$. We assume that the spacetime has symmetries corresponding
to the isometries of an $(n-2)$-dimensional maximally symmetric space with the
sectional curvature $k=\pm 1, 0$. It is also assumed that the metric is at
least $C^{2}$ and the $(n-2)$-dimensional maximally symmetric subspace is
compact. Depending on the existence or absence of the general relativistic
limit $\alpha \to 0$, solutions are classified into general relativistic (GR)
and non-GR branches, respectively, where $\alpha$ is the Gauss-Bonnet coupling
constant. We show that a wormhole throat respecting the dominant energy
condition coincides with a branch surface in the GR branch, otherwise the null
energy condition is violated there. In the non-GR branch, it is shown that
there is no wormhole solution for $k\alpha \ge 0$. For the matter field with
zero tangential pressure, it is also shown in the non-GR branch with
$k\alpha<0$ and $\Lambda \le 0$ that the dominant energy condition holds at the
wormhole throat if the radius of the throat satisfies some inequality. In the
vacuum case, a fine-tuning of the coupling constants is shown to be necessary
and the radius of a wormhole throat is fixed. Explicit wormhole solutions
respecting the energy conditions in the whole spacetime are obtained in the
vacuum and dust cases with $k=-1$ and $\alpha>0$.Comment: 10 pages, 2 tables; v2, typos corrected, references added; v3,
interpretation of the solution for n=5 in section IV corrected; v4, a very
final version to appear in Physical Review

### Creation of the universe with a stealth scalar field

The stealth scalar field is a non-trivial configuration without any
back-reaction to geometry, which is characteristic for non-minimally coupled
scalar fields. Studying the creation probability of the de Sitter universe with
a stealth scalar field by the Hartle and Hawking's semi-classical method, we
show that the effect of the stealth field can be significant. For the class of
scalar fields we consider, creation with a stealth field is possible for a
discrete value of the coupling constant and its creation probability is always
less than that with a trivial scalar field. However, those creation rates can
be almost the same depending on the parameters of the theory.Comment: 7 pages; v2, references added; v3, creation of the open universe
adde

### AN ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF THE NEW AGRICULTURAL TRADE NEGOTIATIONS: A NONLINEAR IMPERFECTLY COMPETITIVE SPATIAL EQUILIBRIUM APPROACH

The objective of the research reported here is to develop a more flexible and comprehensive policy simulation model for imperfectly competitive international agricultural trade with various trade and domestic support policies. The model is a nonlinear imperfectly competitive spatial equilibrium model formulated as a MCP. The model is flexible in that it can simulate the economic effects of the following trade policies: specific duties, ad valorem tariffs, tariff-rate quotas, export subsidies, production subsidies, production quotas, consumption taxes and price floor, combined with various imperfectly competitive market structures. The usefulness of the model is demonstrated with an application to international wheat trade simulated under several alternative scenarios based on proposals of major countries as well as the agreement between China and the United States on China's participation in the 11'70. The main empirical findings are as follows. Keeping the committed 1000 support levels under the current WTO agricultural agreements would be favorable for wheat producers in tile European Community and Canada, but harmful to the United States w-heat sector. There would be little structural change in the world wheat trade in a case where China joins the WTO, keeping the other countries' policies at the committed 2000 support levels. Likewise, little structural change would occur in the case where the new WTO agricultural negotiations result in agreements favorable for importing countries. However, world wheat trade would drastically change under full trade liberalization. In this case, the European Community switches from the world's leading net exporter to the world's leading net importer of wheat. Also, China and India would become major net exporting countries, and net exports by the United States, Canada, and the Cairns group such as Australia and Argentina would expand tinder full trade liberalization.International Relations/Trade,

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