686 research outputs found

    Monte Carlo Tests of SLE Predictions for the 2D Self-Avoiding Walk

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    The conjecture that the scaling limit of the two-dimensional self-avoiding walk (SAW) in a half plane is given by the stochastic Loewner evolution (SLE) with κ=8/3\kappa=8/3 leads to explicit predictions about the SAW. A remarkable feature of these predictions is that they yield not just critical exponents, but probability distributions for certain random variables associated with the self-avoiding walk. We test two of these predictions with Monte Carlo simulations and find excellent agreement, thus providing numerical support to the conjecture that the scaling limit of the SAW is SLE8/3_{8/3}.Comment: TeX file using APS REVTeX 4.0. 10 pages, 5 figures (encapsulated postscript

    Discovery and Assessment of New Target Sites for Anti-HIV Therapies

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    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects cells by endocytosis and takes over parts of the cell’s reaction pathways in order to reproduce itself and spread the infection. One such pathway taken over by HIV becomes the inflammatory pathway which uses Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) as the principal transcription factor. Therefore, knocking out the NF-κB pathway would prevent HIV from reproducing itself. In this report, our goal is to produce a simple model for this pathway with which we can identify potential targets for anti-HIV therapies and test out various hypotheses. We present a very simple model with four coupled first-order ODEs and see what happens if we treat IκK concentration as a parameter that can be controlled (by some unspecified means). In Section 3, we augment this model to account for activation and deactivation of IκK, which is controlled (again, by some unspecified means) by TNF

    Surface Code Threshold in the Presence of Correlated Errors

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    We study the fidelity of the surface code in the presence of correlated errors induced by the coupling of physical qubits to a bosonic environment. By mapping the time evolution of the system after one quantum error correction cycle onto a statistical spin model, we show that the existence of an error threshold is related to the appearance of an order-disorder phase transition in the statistical model in the thermodynamic limit. This allows us to relate the error threshold to bath parameters and to the spatial range of the correlated errors.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figure

    Elephants can always remember: Exact long-range memory effects in a non-Markovian random walk

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    We consider a discrete-time random walk where the random increment at time step tt depends on the full history of the process. We calculate exactly the mean and variance of the position and discuss its dependence on the initial condition and on the memory parameter pp. At a critical value pc(1)=1/2p_c^{(1)}=1/2 where memory effects vanish there is a transition from a weakly localized regime (where the walker returns to its starting point) to an escape regime. Inside the escape regime there is a second critical value where the random walk becomes superdiffusive. The probability distribution is shown to be governed by a non-Markovian Fokker-Planck equation with hopping rates that depend both on time and on the starting position of the walk. On large scales the memory organizes itself into an effective harmonic oscillator potential for the random walker with a time-dependent spring constant k=(2p−1)/tk = (2p-1)/t. The solution of this problem is a Gaussian distribution with time-dependent mean and variance which both depend on the initiation of the process.Comment: 10 page

    Pattern theorems, ratio limit theorems and Gumbel maximal clusters for random fields

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    We study occurrences of patterns on clusters of size n in random fields on Z^d. We prove that for a given pattern, there is a constant a>0 such that the probability that this pattern occurs at most an times on a cluster of size n is exponentially small. Moreover, for random fields obeying a certain Markov property, we show that the ratio between the numbers of occurrences of two distinct patterns on a cluster is concentrated around a constant value. This leads to an elegant and simple proof of the ratio limit theorem for these random fields, which states that the ratio of the probabilities that the cluster of the origin has sizes n+1 and n converges as n tends to infinity. Implications for the maximal cluster in a finite box are discussed.Comment: 23 pages, 2 figure

    Rigorous Non-Perturbative Ornstein-Zernike Theory for Ising Ferromagnets

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    We rigorously derive the Ornstein-Zernike asymptotics of the pair-correlation functions for finite-range Ising ferromagnets in any dimensions and at any temperature above critical

    Universal properties of knotted polymer rings

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    By performing Monte Carlo sampling of NN-steps self-avoiding polygons embedded on different Bravais lattices we explore the robustness of universality in the entropic, metric and geometrical properties of knotted polymer rings. In particular, by simulating polygons with NN up to 10510^5 we furnish a sharp estimate of the asymptotic values of the knot probability ratios and show their independence on the lattice type. This universal feature was previously suggested although with different estimates of the asymptotic values. In addition we show that the scaling behavior of the mean squared radius of gyration of polygons depends on their knot type only through its correction to scaling. Finally, as a measure of the geometrical self-entanglement of the SAPs we consider the standard deviation of the writhe distribution and estimate its power-law behavior in the large NN limit. The estimates of the power exponent do depend neither on the lattice nor on the knot type, strongly supporting an extension of the universality property to some features of the geometrical entanglement.Comment: submitted to Phys.Rev.

    What is the maximum rate at which entropy of a string can increase?

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    According to Susskind, a string falling toward a black hole spreads exponentially over the stretched horizon due to repulsive interactions of the string bits. In this paper such a string is modeled as a self-avoiding walk and the string entropy is found. It is shown that the rate at which information/entropy contained in the string spreads is the maximum rate allowed by quantum theory. The maximum rate at which the black hole entropy can increase when a string falls into a black hole is also discussed.Comment: 11 pages, no figures; formulas (18), (20) are corrected (the quantum constant is added), a point concerning a relation between the Hawking and Hagedorn temperatures is corrected, conclusions unchanged; accepted by Physical Review D for publicatio

    Identifying influential spreaders and efficiently estimating infection numbers in epidemic models: a walk counting approach

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    We introduce a new method to efficiently approximate the number of infections resulting from a given initially-infected node in a network of susceptible individuals. Our approach is based on counting the number of possible infection walks of various lengths to each other node in the network. We analytically study the properties of our method, in particular demonstrating different forms for SIS and SIR disease spreading (e.g. under the SIR model our method counts self-avoiding walks). In comparison to existing methods to infer the spreading efficiency of different nodes in the network (based on degree, k-shell decomposition analysis and different centrality measures), our method directly considers the spreading process and, as such, is unique in providing estimation of actual numbers of infections. Crucially, in simulating infections on various real-world networks with the SIR model, we show that our walks-based method improves the inference of effectiveness of nodes over a wide range of infection rates compared to existing methods. We also analyse the trade-off between estimate accuracy and computational cost, showing that the better accuracy here can still be obtained at a comparable computational cost to other methods.Comment: 6 page
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