2 research outputs found

    Structure-based drug discovery to identify SARS-CoV2 spike protein–ACE2 interaction inhibitors

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    After the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic in late 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has undergone a dynamic evolution driven by the acquisition of genetic modifications, resulting in several variants that are further classified as variants of interest (VOIs), variants under monitoring (VUM) and variants of concern (VOC) by World Health Organization (WHO). Currently, there are five SARS-CoV-2 VOCs (Alpha, Beta, Delta, Gamma and Omicron), two VOIs (Lambda and Mu) and several other VOIs that have been reported globally. In this study, we report a natural compound, Curcumin, as the potential inhibitor to the interactions between receptor binding domain (RBD(S1)) and human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) domains and showcased its inhibitory potential for the Delta and Omicron variants through a computational approach by implementing state of the art methods. The study for the first time revealed a higher efficiency of Curcumin, especially for hindering the interaction between RBD(S1) and hACE-2 domains of Delta and Omicron variants as compared to other lead compounds. We investigated that the mutations in the RBD(S1) of VOC especially Delta and Omicron variants affect its structure compared to that of the wild type and other variants and therefore altered its binding to the hACE2 receptor. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation analyses substantially supported the findings in terms of the stability of the docked complexes. This study offers compelling evidence, warranting a more in-depth exploration into the impact of these alterations on the binding of identified drug molecules with the Spike protein. Further investigation into their potential therapeutic effects in vivo is highly recommended. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma</p

    Poly(ethylene glycol)-<i>co</i>-methacrylamide-<i>co</i>-acrylic acid based nanogels for delivery of doxorubicin

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    <p>Polymeric nanogels have been widely explored for their potential application as delivery carriers for cancer therapeutics. The ability of nanogels to encapsulate therapeutics by simple diffusion mechanism and the ease of their fabrication to impart target specificity in addition to their ability to get internalized into target cells make them good candidates for drug delivery. The present study aims to investigate the applicability of poly(ethylene glycol)-<i>co</i>-methacrylamide-<i>co</i>-acrylic acid (PMA)-based nanogels as a viable option for the delivery of doxorubicin (DOX). The nanogels were synthesized by free radical polymerization in an inverse mini-emulsion and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (<sup>1</sup>H NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. DOX was physically incorporated into the nanogels (PMA-DOX) and the mechanism of its <i>in vitro</i> release was studied. TEM experiment revealed spherical morphology of nanogels and the hydrodynamic diameter of the neat nanogels was in the range of 160 ± 46.95 nm. The size of the nanogels increased from 235.1 ± 28.46 to 403.7 ± 89.89 nm with the increase in drug loading capacity from 4.68 ± 0.03 to 13.71 ± 0.01%. The sustained release of DOX was observed upto 80 h and the release rate decreased with increased loading capacity following anomalous release mechanism as indicated by the value of diffusion exponent (<i>n</i> = 0.64–0.75) obtained from Korsmeyer–Peppas equation. Further, cytotoxicity evaluation of PMA-DOX nanogels on HeLa cells resulted in relatively higher efficacy (IC<sub>50</sub>~5.88 μg/mL) as compared to free DOX (IC<sub>50</sub>~7.24 μg/mL) thus demonstrating that the preparation is potentially a promising drug delivery carrier.</p