2,574 research outputs found

    Pushed off the map: toponymy and the politics of place in New York City

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    This article examines conflicts over neighborhood renaming and the politics of place. Toponymy, or the practice of place naming, is central to the constitution of place, and neighborhood renaming is a pervasive urban strategy. But despite its prevalence, the role of neighborhood toponymic conflict in processes of urban restructuring has not been given sustained engagement from urban scholars. This article uses archival and ethnographic data from an area in Brooklyn, New York to argue that contemporary neighborhood renaming facilitates uneven local development. Real estate developers and residents of expensive private housing use toponymy to legitimize their privileged positions, while public housing residents experience the same toponymic change as a form of symbolic displacement. Conflicts surrounding neighborhood renaming should therefore be seen as a symbolic dimension to struggles over resources, property, identity, and belonging in urban space

    Disaster urbanization: the city between crisis and calamity

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    This paper asks what critical urban theory can add to the sociology of disasters. If the fundamental insight of disaster studies is that there's no such thing as a natural disaster, the starting point for critical urban studies is that capitalist urbanization is a disaster waiting to happen. Disasters are promoted and inflected by the specific forms of crisis and vulnerability created by neoliberal urbanization. Disasters are also ways in which urban space is produced and remade, in a process that can be called disaster urbanization. A critical account of the relationship between contemporary urbanization and disaster can help us better understand the disaster-prone, unevenly urbanizing future

    Beyond the limits of rentability: revalorizing urban space in late neoliberalism

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    How has the process of urban spatial valorization evolved since the global financial crisis of 2007-2008? In the late neoliberal city, flows of value are increasingly captured through new forms of rentable property. In order to explore this process, this paper develops the notion of rentability. It argues that the post-crisis period of urbanization in the neoliberal core is characterized by the expansion and deepening of rentability throughout urban and suburban space. The paper details multiple manifestations of this process. It argues that there this process features distinctive spatial and scalar patterns. And it explores how the expansion of rentability is being contested in various ways. As more of urban life becomes rentable, new opportunities for resistance emerge

    The names of urban dispossession: a concluding commentary

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    This concluding commentary discusses some of the ways in which branded renaming reflects conflicts over ownership, authority, property and power. Practices of sponsored renaming and place branding are not monolithic, but this special issue shows that they are deeply rooted within neoliberal urbanism. It should therefore not be surprising that place branding is almost always contested, and often a flashpoint in struggles over urban space

    Visual Acuity does not Moderate Effect Sizes of Higher-Level Cognitive Tasks.

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    Background/study contextDeclining visual capacities in older adults have been posited as a driving force behind adult age differences in higher-order cognitive functions (e.g., the "common cause" hypothesis of Lindenberger & Baltes, 1994, Psychology and Aging, 9, 339-355). McGowan, Patterson, and Jordan (2013, Experimental Aging Research, 39, 70-79) also found that a surprisingly large number of published cognitive aging studies failed to include adequate measures of visual acuity. However, a recent meta-analysis of three studies (La Fleur and Salthouse, 2014, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 1202-1208) failed to find evidence that visual acuity moderated or mediated age differences in higher-level cognitive processes. In order to provide a more extensive test of whether visual acuity moderates age differences in higher-level cognitive processes, we conducted a more extensive meta-analysis of topic.MethodsUsing results from 456 studies, we calculated effect sizes for the main effect of age across four cognitive domains (attention, executive function, memory, and perception/language) separately for five levels of visual acuity criteria (no criteria, undisclosed criteria, self-reported acuity, 20/80-20/31, and 20/30 or better).ResultsAs expected, age had a significant effect on each cognitive domain. However, these age effects did not further differ as a function of visual acuity criteria.ConclusionThe current meta-analytic, cross-sectional results suggest that visual acuity is not significantly related to age group differences in higher-level cognitive performance-thereby replicating La Fleur and Salthouse (2014). Further efforts are needed to determine whether other measures of visual functioning (e.g., contrast sensitivity, luminance) affect age differences in cognitive functioning

    Housing Ideology and Urban Residential Change: the rise of co-living in the financialized city

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    This article develops the concept of housing ideology in order to analyze the rise of co-living. Housing ideology refers to the dominant ideas and knowledge about housing that are used to justify and legitimize the housing system and its place within the broader political economy. Coliving is the term for privately operated, for-profit group rental housing. The article argues that the rise of co-living is supported by four key ideological elements—corporate futurism, technocratic urbanism, market populism and curated collectivism—which serve to legitimize co-living within the housing system and enable its profitability. The ideology of coliving appears to critique many elements of the contemporary urban housing system. But despite its critical self-image, co-living does not represent an alternative to today’s financialized urbanization. Ultimately, the article argues for the importance of understanding the role of housing ideologies in residential change

    The search for novel analgesics: re-examining spinal cord circuits with new tools

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    In this perspective, we propose the absence of detailed information regarding spinal cord circuits that process sensory information remains a major barrier to advancing analgesia. We highlight recent advances showing that functionally discrete populations of neurons in the spinal cord dorsal horn play distinct roles in processing sensory information. We then discuss new molecular, electrophysiological, and optogenetic techniques that can be employed to understand how dorsal horn circuits process tactile and nociceptive information. We believe this information can drive the development of entirely new classes of pharmacotherapies that target key elements in spinal circuits to selectively modify sensory function and blunt pain

    Water exchange at a hydrated platinum electrode is rare and collective

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    We use molecular dynamics simulations to study the exchange kinetics of water molecules at a model metal electrode surface -- exchange between water molecules in the bulk liquid and water molecules bound to the metal. This process is a rare event, with a mean residence time of a bound water of about 40 ns for the model we consider. With analysis borrowed from the techniques of rare-event sampling, we show how this exchange or desorption is controlled by (1) reorganization of the hydrogen bond network within the adlayer of bound water molecules, and by (2) interfacial density fluctuations of the bulk liquid adjacent to the adlayer. We define collective coordinates that describe the desorption mechanism. Spatial and temporal correlations associated with a single event extend over nanometers and tens of picoseconds.Comment: 10 pages, 9 figure

    Improving aerobic capacity in healthy older adults does not necessarily lead to improved cognitive performance.

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    The effects of aerobic exercise training in a sample of 85 older adults were investigated. Ss were assigned randomly to either an aerobic exercise group, a nonaerobic exercise (yoga) group, or a waiting-list control group. Following 16 weeks of the group-specific protocol, all of the older Ss received 16 weeks of aerobic exercise training. The older adults demonstrated a significant increase in aerobic capacity (cardiorespiratory fitness). Performance on reaction-time tests of attention and memory retrieval was slower for the older adults than for a comparison group of 24 young adults, and there was no improvement in the older adults ' performance on these tests as a function of aerobic exercise training. Results suggest that exercise-related changes in older adults ' cognitive performance are due either to extended periods of training or to cohort differences between physically active and sedentary individuals. Several parameters of cardiovascular functioning (e.g., maxi-mal heart rate, cardiac output, and left ventricular ejection fraction during exercise) typically exhibit a decline during later adulthood, even in the absence of overt coronary diseas
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