20 research outputs found

    Caraterização de vírus específicos de insetos: análise da sua diversidade genética e relação com outros vírus

    Get PDF
    Os arbov√≠rus s√£o respons√°veis por doen√ßas com impacto significativo na sa√ļde humana, sendo transmitidos a humanos e outros animais por insetos e outros vetores invertebrados. Entre estes √ļltimos, os mosquitos representam um dos mais importantes vetores conhecidos por servirem de vetores a arbov√≠rus patog√©nicos para os humanos, de que s√£o exemplos os v√≠rus da dengue e Zika. Por muito tempo, a pesquisa de v√≠rus foi impulsionada pelo impacto que estes agentes imp√Ķem √† sa√ļde humana/animal/plantas, mas os desenvolvimentos nas √ļltimas d√©cadas nos dom√≠nios das tecnologias de sequencia√ß√£o de alto rendimento e bioinform√°tica permitiram melhorias nas estrat√©gias de descoberta de v√≠rus, o que, por sua vez, levou a um aumento no n√ļmero de v√≠rus peculiares que vieram a ser descobertos em rastreios virol√≥gicos, alguns com replica√ß√£o restrita em c√©lulas de vertebrados. Acredita-se que esses v√≠rus, designados v√≠rus espec√≠ficos de insetos, tenham impacto nulo ou baixo na sa√ļde animal e, provavelmente por isso mesmo, tenham permanecido √† sombra de arbov√≠rus patog√©nicos. No entanto, nas √ļltimas d√©cadas eles tornaram-se no foco da nossa aten√ß√£o, n√£o apenas pela sua extensa diversidade e estrat√©gias incomuns de replica√ß√£o restrita nalguns hospedeiros, mas tamb√©m pelo seu potencial de interferir na replica√ß√£o de arbov√≠rus. Desde ent√£o, diversos v√≠rus espec√≠ficos de insetos foram descobertos em v√°rias fam√≠lias de v√≠rus, com v√≠rus espec√≠ficos de mosquitos associados especialmente √†s fam√≠lias Flaviviridae, Mesoniviridae e Parvoviridae. Neste projeto procurou-se detetar e analisar novas sequ√™ncias de v√≠rus espec√≠ficos de insetos dessas tr√™s fam√≠lias virais em mosquitos coletados em Portugal, Angola e Mo√ßambique. A diversidade gen√©tica, reconstru√ß√£o filogen√©tica e avalia√ß√Ķes filodin√Ęmicas foram ent√£o executadas, usando tanto sequ√™ncias gen√≥micas geradas de novo, bem como de sequ√™ncias dispon√≠veis em bases de dados p√ļblicas. Novas sequ√™ncias de flaviv√≠rus espec√≠ficos de insetos ditos "cl√°ssicos" (cISF) foram detetadas em pools de mosquitos das tr√™s regi√Ķes geogr√°ficas, e diferentes sub-linhagens de cISF foram caracterizadas. A sua an√°lise filodin√Ęmica sugeriu que a dispers√£o de cISF no espa√ßo e no tempo dever√° ser recente e bastante din√Ęmica. Por outro lado, embora dados insuficientes n√£o tenham permitido uma an√°lise filodin√Ęmica completa com base em sequ√™ncias de mesoniv√≠rus, foi realizada uma extensa revis√£o taxon√≥mica, que incluiu a an√°lise de sequ√™ncias semelhantes a mesoniv√≠rus (meson-like viruses) recentemente detetadas em outros organismos que n√£o mosquitos. Por fim, tamb√©m procur√°mos analisar entre os parvov√≠rus de invertebrados aqueles que t√™m sido inclu√≠dos no g√©nero Brevihamaparvovirus, cuja distribui√ß√£o at√© ao momento parece ser restrita a algumas esp√©cies de mosquitos. Os seus genomas parecem evoluir sob forte sele√ß√£o negativa e tamb√©m s√£o caracterizados por baixa entropia, tal como foi igualmente observado para flaviv√≠rus e mesoniv√≠rus. Tamb√©m realiz√°mos uma revis√£o taxon√≥mica do t√°xon (o primeiro para brevihamaparvov√≠rus) e efetu√°mos a sua primeira reconstru√ß√£o filodin√Ęmica.Arboviruses are responsible for impactful viral diseases and are transmitted to humans and other animals by insect and other arthropod vectors. Among the latter, mosquitoes pose as one of the most important hematophagous vectors known to carry pathogenic arboviruses for humans, like dengue and Zika. For a long while, virus research was driven by the negative impact viruses impose on human/animal/plant health, but recent developments in next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics have allowed for improvements on virus discovery strategies. In turn, these have led to an increase in the number of peculiar viruses detected in viral screening-based studies, some of which display restricted replication in vertebrate cells. These viruses, designated insect-specific viruses, are thought to have none-to-low impact on animal health and have endured in the shadow of pathogenic arboviruses. However, in the last decades they have become the focus of our attention, not only due to their extensive diversity and unusual host-restriction strategies, but also because of their potential to interfere with the replication of arboviruses. Insect-specific viruses have since been discovered in multiple virus families, with mosquito-specific viruses especially associated with the Flaviviridae, Mesoniviridae and Parvoviridae families. In this project we sought to detect and analyze new insect-specific virus sequences from these three viral families in mosquitoes collected in Portugal, Angola and Mozambique. Genetic diversity, phylogenetic reconstruction and phylodynamic assessments were then executed, using both new generated sequences and sequences available in public databases. New classical insect-specific flavivirus (cISF) sequences were detected in mosquito pools from these three geographic regions, and different sub-lineages inside the cISF cluster were characterized. Phylodynamics analyses suggested that cISF dispersion over space and time could be recent and quite dynamic. On the other hand, while insufficient data did not allow for a full phylodynamic analysis based on mesonivirus sequences, an extensive taxonomy revision was performed, that also included the analysis of sequences similar to mesoniviruses (meson-like viruses) recently detected in organisms other than mosquitoes. Finally, we also sought to analyze among the parvoviruses of invertebrates those included in the Brevihamaparvovirus genus, that have been restricted (so far) to a few mosquito species. Their genomes seem to evolve under strong purifying selection and are also characterized by low entropy, as also observed for flaviviruses and mesoniviruses. We also performed a taxonomic revision of the taxon (the first ever for brevihamaparvoviruses), and attempted their first ever phylodynamic reconstruction

    Estudo do DNA mitocondrial de um grupo de imigrantes oriundos de Cabo Verde residentes em Lisboa: contributo para o conhecimento da origem e evolução da população de um território integrado no ex-Império Colonial Português durante 500 anos

    Get PDF
    Disserta√ß√£o para obten√ß√£o do grau de Mestre em Biologia Molecular em Sa√ļdeO DNA mitocondrial apresenta caracter√≠sticas particulares, tais como um elevado n√ļmero de c√≥pias por c√©lula, heran√ßa uniparental materna, elevada taxa de muta√ß√£o e aus√™ncia de recombina√ß√£o, que permitem a sua utiliza√ß√£o na clarifica√ß√£o da origem e evolu√ß√£o das popula√ß√Ķes humanas. O objetivo deste estudo foi obter informa√ß√£o sobre a origem, em termos gen√©ticos, da popula√ß√£o imigrante de Cabo Verde residente atualmente em Lisboa. Para tal procedeu-se √† constru√ß√£o de uma base de dados de DNA mitocondrial de forma a caracterizar a diversidade gen√©tica de 103 imigrantes oriundos de Cabo Verde, residentes em Lisboa. A regi√£o controlo do DNA mitocondrial foi amplificada e sequenciada, entre as posi√ß√Ķes 16024 e 576, utilizando dois pares de primers (L15997/H016 e L1655/H599). As sequ√™ncias obtidas foram inseridas na base de dados de DNA mitocondrial com maior relev√Ęncia na √°rea das Ci√™ncias Forenses, a EDNAP Forensic mtDNA Population Database - EMPOP. A an√°lise da regi√£o controlo revelou elevada variabilidade gen√©tica, com elevada frequ√™ncia de hapl√≥tipos √ļnicos. A maioria das sequ√™ncias de DNA mitocondrial corresponde a haplogrupos caracter√≠sticos de popula√ß√Ķes africanas. Uma pequena minoria corresponde a haplogrupos euroasi√°ticos. Os resultados obtidos s√£o semelhantes aos resultados alcan√ßados em estudos anteriores sobre a origem e evolu√ß√£o da popula√ß√£o de Cabo Verde, o que sugere que a composi√ß√£o gen√©tica da popula√ß√£o imigrante de Cabo Verde a residir atualmente em Lisboa √© representativa da composi√ß√£o gen√©tica do arquip√©lago. Os resultados obtidos n√£o contradizem a vers√£o hist√≥rica da coloniza√ß√£o do arquip√©lago de Cabo Verde, segundo a qual a referida coloniza√ß√£o envolveu escravas africanas e indiv√≠duos portugueses do sexo masculino, mobilizados √† altura para a ex-col√≥nia

    A well-kept treasure at depth: precious red coral rediscovered in Atlantic deep coral gardens (SW Portugal) after 300 years

    Get PDF
    The highly valuable red coral Corallium rubrum is listed in several Mediterranean Conventions for species protection and management since the 1980s. Yet, the lack of data about its Atlantic distribution has hindered its protection there. This culminated in the recent discovery of poaching activities harvesting tens of kg of coral per day from deep rocky reefs off SW Portugal. Red coral was irregularly exploited in Portugal between the 1200s and 1700s, until the fishery collapsed. Its occurrence has not been reported for the last 300 years.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Pervasive gaps in Amazonian ecological research

    Get PDF
    Biodiversity loss is one of the main challenges of our time,1,2 and attempts to address it require a clear un derstanding of how ecological communities respond to environmental change across time and space.3,4 While the increasing availability of global databases on ecological communities has advanced our knowledge of biodiversity sensitivity to environmental changes,5‚Äď7 vast areas of the tropics remain understudied.8‚Äď11 In the American tropics, Amazonia stands out as the world‚Äôs most diverse rainforest and the primary source of Neotropical biodiversity,12 but it remains among the least known forests in America and is often underrepre sented in biodiversity databases.13‚Äď15 To worsen this situation, human-induced modifications16,17 may elim inate pieces of the Amazon‚Äôs biodiversity puzzle before we can use them to understand how ecological com munities are responding. To increase generalization and applicability of biodiversity knowledge,18,19 it is thus crucial to reduce biases in ecological research, particularly in regions projected to face the most pronounced environmental changes. We integrate ecological community metadata of 7,694 sampling sites for multiple or ganism groups in a machine learning model framework to map the research probability across the Brazilian Amazonia, while identifying the region‚Äôs vulnerability to environmental change. 15%‚Äď18% of the most ne glected areas in ecological research are expected to experience severe climate or land use changes by 2050. This means that unless we take immediate action, we will not be able to establish their current status, much less monitor how it is changing and what is being lostinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Pervasive gaps in Amazonian ecological research

    Get PDF

    Pervasive gaps in Amazonian ecological research

    Get PDF
    Biodiversity loss is one of the main challenges of our time,1,2 and attempts to address it require a clear understanding of how ecological communities respond to environmental change across time and space.3,4 While the increasing availability of global databases on ecological communities has advanced our knowledge of biodiversity sensitivity to environmental changes,5,6,7 vast areas of the tropics remain understudied.8,9,10,11 In the American tropics, Amazonia stands out as the world's most diverse rainforest and the primary source of Neotropical biodiversity,12 but it remains among the least known forests in America and is often underrepresented in biodiversity databases.13,14,15 To worsen this situation, human-induced modifications16,17 may eliminate pieces of the Amazon's biodiversity puzzle before we can use them to understand how ecological communities are responding. To increase generalization and applicability of biodiversity knowledge,18,19 it is thus crucial to reduce biases in ecological research, particularly in regions projected to face the most pronounced environmental changes. We integrate ecological community metadata of 7,694 sampling sites for multiple organism groups in a machine learning model framework to map the research probability across the Brazilian Amazonia, while identifying the region's vulnerability to environmental change. 15%‚Äď18% of the most neglected areas in ecological research are expected to experience severe climate or land use changes by 2050. This means that unless we take immediate action, we will not be able to establish their current status, much less monitor how it is changing and what is being lost

    Caracterização de vírus específicos de insetos: análise da sua diversidade genética e relação com outros vírus

    No full text
    Os arbov√≠rus s√£o respons√°veis por doen√ßas com impacto significativo na sa√ļde humana, sendo transmitidos a humanos e outros animais por insetos e outros vetores invertebrados. Entre estes √ļltimos, os mosquitos representam um dos mais importantes vetores conhecidos por servirem de vetores a arbov√≠rus patog√©nicos para os humanos, de que s√£o exemplos os v√≠rus da dengue e Zika. Por muito tempo, a pesquisa de v√≠rus foi impulsionada pelo impacto que estes agentes imp√Ķem √† sa√ļde humana/animal/plantas, mas os desenvolvimentos nas √ļltimas d√©cadas nos dom√≠nios das tecnologias de sequencia√ß√£o de alto rendimento e bioinform√°tica permitiram melhorias nas estrat√©gias de descoberta de v√≠rus, o que, por sua vez, levou a um aumento no n√ļmero de v√≠rus peculiares que vieram a ser descobertos em rastreios virol√≥gicos, alguns com replica√ß√£o restrita em c√©lulas de vertebrados. Acredita-se que esses v√≠rus, designados v√≠rus espec√≠ficos de insetos, tenham impacto nulo ou baixo na sa√ļde animal e, provavelmente por isso mesmo, tenham permanecido √† sombra de arbov√≠rus patog√©nicos. No entanto, nas √ļltimas d√©cadas eles tornaram-se no foco da nossa aten√ß√£o, n√£o apenas pela sua extensa diversidade e estrat√©gias incomuns de replica√ß√£o restrita nalguns hospedeiros, mas tamb√©m pelo seu potencial de interferir na replica√ß√£o de arbov√≠rus. Desde ent√£o, diversos v√≠rus espec√≠ficos de insetos foram descobertos em v√°rias fam√≠lias de v√≠rus, com v√≠rus espec√≠ficos de mosquitos associados especialmente √†s fam√≠lias Flaviviridae, Mesoniviridae e Parvoviridae. Neste projeto procurou-se detetar e analisar novas sequ√™ncias de v√≠rus espec√≠ficos de insetos dessas tr√™s fam√≠lias virais em mosquitos coletados em Portugal, Angola e Mo√ßambique. A diversidade gen√©tica, reconstru√ß√£o filogen√©tica e avalia√ß√Ķes filodin√Ęmicas foram ent√£o executadas, usando tanto sequ√™ncias gen√≥micas geradas de novo, bem como de sequ√™ncias dispon√≠veis em bases de dados p√ļblicas. Novas sequ√™ncias de flaviv√≠rus espec√≠ficos de insetos ditos "cl√°ssicos" (cISF) foram detetadas em pools de mosquitos das tr√™s regi√Ķes geogr√°ficas, e diferentes sub-linhagens de cISF foram caracterizadas. A sua an√°lise filodin√Ęmica sugeriu que a dispers√£o de cISF no espa√ßo e no tempo dever√° ser recente e bastante din√Ęmica. Por outro lado, embora dados insuficientes n√£o tenham permitido uma an√°lise filodin√Ęmica completa com base em sequ√™ncias de mesoniv√≠rus, foi realizada uma extensa revis√£o taxon√≥mica, que incluiu a an√°lise de sequ√™ncias semelhantes a mesoniv√≠rus (meson-like viruses) recentemente detetadas em outros organismos que n√£o mosquitos. Por fim, tamb√©m procur√°mos analisar entre os parvov√≠rus de invertebrados aqueles que t√™m sido inclu√≠dos no g√©nero Brevihamaparvovirus, cuja distribui√ß√£o at√© ao momento parece ser restrita a algumas esp√©cies de mosquitos. Os seus genomas parecem evoluir sob forte sele√ß√£o negativa e tamb√©m s√£o caracterizados por baixa entropia, tal como foi igualmente observado para flaviv√≠rus e mesoniv√≠rus. Tamb√©m realiz√°mos uma revis√£o taxon√≥mica do t√°xon (o primeiro para brevihamaparvov√≠rus) e efetu√°mos a sua primeira reconstru√ß√£o filodin√Ęmica.Arboviruses are responsible for impactful viral diseases and are transmitted to humans and other animals by insect and other arthropod vectors. Among the latter, mosquitoes pose as one of the most important hematophagous vectors known to carry pathogenic arboviruses for humans, like dengue and Zika. For a long while, virus research was driven by the negative impact viruses impose on human/animal/plant health, but recent developments in next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics have allowed for improvements on virus discovery strategies. In turn, these have led to an increase in the number of peculiar viruses detected in viral screening-based studies, some of which display restricted replication in vertebrate cells. These viruses, designated insect-specific viruses, are thought to have none-to-low impact on animal health and have endured in the shadow of pathogenic arboviruses. However, in the last decades they have become the focus of our attention, not only due to their extensive diversity and unusual host-restriction strategies, but also because of their potential to interfere with the replication of arboviruses. Insect-specific viruses have since been discovered in multiple virus families, with mosquito-specific viruses especially associated with the Flaviviridae, Mesoniviridae and Parvoviridae families. In this project we sought to detect and analyze new insect-specific virus sequences from these three viral families in mosquitoes collected in Portugal, Angola and Mozambique. Genetic diversity, phylogenetic reconstruction and phylodynamic assessments were then executed, using both new generated sequences and sequences available in public databases. New classical insect-specific flavivirus (cISF) sequences were detected in mosquito pools from these three geographic regions, and different sub-lineages inside the cISF cluster were characterized. Phylodynamics analyses suggested that cISF dispersion over space and time could be recent and quite dynamic. On the other hand, while insufficient data did not allow for a full phylodynamic analysis based on mesonivirus sequences, an extensive taxonomy revision was performed, that also included the analysis of sequences similar to mesoniviruses (meson-like viruses) recently detected in organisms other than mosquitoes. Finally, we also sought to analyze among the parvoviruses of invertebrates those included in the Brevihamaparvovirus genus, that have been restricted (so far) to a few mosquito species. Their genomes seem to evolve under strong purifying selection and are also characterized by low entropy, as also observed for flaviviruses and mesoniviruses. We also performed a taxonomic revision of the taxon (the first ever for brevihamaparvoviruses), and attempted their first ever phylodynamic reconstruction

    O Museu do Estado da Bahia, entre ideais e realidades (1918 a 1959)

    No full text
    This article retraces the trajectory of the Museu do Estado da Bahia from 1918 to 1959. The aim is to identify its successive museological practices and the implementation of the so-called processes of musealization during its institutionalization and consolidation, which were also related to the personalities of the administrators and their expectations regarding political and social interactions, as well their expectations toward the State of Bahia itself. Having dealt with a wide range of conflicts, alterations have been observed in how the museum functions. Within the framework in question, three successive periods have been characterized: its establishment as a historic museum; its consolidation as an eclectic museum with a focus on history, and the path towards art under the direction of José Valladares

    PEQUENO GUIA AOS PROBLEMAS DA EDUCA√á√ÉO NO BRASIL: AN√ĀLISE E BIBLIOGRAFIA SELECIONADA. MALVINA ROSAT MCNEILL, PH.D. - 1970

    No full text
    corecore