901 research outputs found

    How do sound waves in a Bose-Einstein condensate move so fast?

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    Low-momentum excitations of a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate behave as phonons and move at a finite velocity v_s. Yet the atoms making up the phonon excitation each move very slowly; v_a = p/m --> 0. A simple "cartoon picture" is suggested to understand this phenomenon intuitively. It implies a relation v_s/v_a = N_ex, where N_ex is the number of excited atoms making up the phonon. This relation does indeed follow from the standard Bogoliubov theory.Comment: 6 pages, 2 figures (.eps), LaTeX2e. More introductory discussion adde

    Analog model for an expanding universe

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    Over the last few years numerous papers concerning analog models for gravity have been published. It was shown that the dynamical equation of several systems (e.g. Bose-Einstein condensates with a sink or a vortex) have the same wave equation as light in a curved-space (e.g. black holes). In the last few months several papers were released which deal with simulations of the universe. In this article the de-Sitter universe will be compared with a freely expanding three-dimensional spherical Bose-Einstein condensate. Initially the condensate is in a harmonic trap, which suddenly will be switched off. At the same time a small perturbation will be injected in the center of the condensate cloud. The motion of the perturbation in the expanding condensate will be discussed, and after some transformations the similarity to an expanding universe will be shown.Comment: Presented at the 4th Australasian conference on General Relativity and Cosmology, Monash U, Melbourne, 7-9 January 200

    Measurement-induced Squeezing of a Bose-Einstein Condensate

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    We discuss the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate during its nondestructive imaging. A generalized Lindblad superoperator in the condensate master equation is used to include the effect of the measurement. A continuous imaging with a sufficiently high laser intensity progressively drives the quantum state of the condensate into number squeezed states. Observable consequences of such a measurement-induced squeezing are discussed.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures, submitted to PR

    Bose-stimulated scattering off a cold atom trap

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    The angle and temperature dependence of the photon scattering rate for Bose-stimulated atom recoil transitions between occupied states is compared to diffraction and incoherent Rayleigh scattering near the Bose-Einstein transition for an optically thin trap in the limit of large particle number, N. Each of these processes has a range of angles and temperatures for which it dominates over the others by a divergent factor as N->oo.Comment: 18 pages (REVTeX), no figure

    Quantum carpet interferometry for trapped atomic Bose-Einstein condensates

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    We propose an ``interferometric'' scheme for Bose-Einstein condensates using near-field diffraction. The scheme is based on the phenomenon of intermode traces or quantum carpets; we show how it may be used in the detection of weak forces.Comment: 4 figures. Submitted to Phys. Rev.

    Velocity of sound in a Bose-Einstein condensate in the presence of an optical lattice and transverse confinement

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    We study the effect of the transverse degrees of freedom on the velocity of sound in a Bose-Einstein condensate immersed in a one-dimensional optical lattice and radially confined by a harmonic trap. We compare the results of full three-dimensional calculations with those of an effective 1D model based on the equation of state of the condensate. The perfect agreement between the two approaches is demonstrated for several optical lattice depths and throughout the full crossover from the 1D mean-field to the Thomas Fermi regime in the radial direction.Comment: final versio

    In-situ velocity imaging of ultracold atoms using slow--light

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    The optical response of a moving medium suitably driven into a slow-light propagation regime strongly depends on its velocity. This effect can be used to devise a novel scheme for imaging ultraslow velocity fields. The scheme turns out to be particularly amenable to study in-situ the dynamics of collective and topological excitations of a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate. We illustrate the advantages of using slow-light imaging specifically for sloshing oscillations and bent vortices in a stirred condensate

    Interferometric detection of a single vortex in a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate

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    Using two radio frequency pulses separated in time we perform an amplitude division interference experiment on a rubidium Bose-Einstein condensate. The presence of a quantized vortex, which is nucleated by stirring the condensate with a laser beam, is revealed by a dislocation in the fringe pattern.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

    Non-destructive, dynamic detectors for Bose-Einstein condensates

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    We propose and analyze a series of non-destructive, dynamic detectors for Bose-Einstein condensates based on photo-detectors operating at the shot noise limit. These detectors are compatible with real time feedback to the condensate. The signal to noise ratio of different detection schemes are compared subject to the constraint of minimal heating due to photon absorption and spontaneous emission. This constraint leads to different optimal operating points for interference-based schemes. We find the somewhat counter-intuitive result that without the presence of a cavity, interferometry causes as much destruction as absorption for optically thin clouds. For optically thick clouds, cavity-free interferometry is superior to absorption, but it still cannot be made arbitrarily non-destructive . We propose a cavity-based measurement of atomic density which can in principle be made arbitrarily non-destructive for a given signal to noise ratio

    Detecting Super-Counter-Fluidity by Ramsey Spectroscopy

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    Spatially selective Ramsey spectroscopy is suggested as a method for detecting the super-counter-fluidity of two-component atomic mixture in optical lattice.Comment: 3pages, no figures, replaced with revised version accepted by PRA. Discussion of the Ramsey pattern specific for topological excitations is adde
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