47 research outputs found

    Theory of spinor Fermi and Bose gases in tight atom waveguides

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    Divergence-free pseudopotentials for spatially even and odd-wave interactions in spinor Fermi gases in tight atom waveguides are derived. The Fermi-Bose mapping method is used to relate the effectively one-dimensional fermionic many-body problem to that of a spinor Bose gas. Depending on the relative magnitudes of the even and odd-wave interactions, the N-atom ground state may have total spin S=0, S=N/2, and possibly also intermediate values, the case S=N/2 applying near a p-wave Feshbach resonance, where the N-fermion ground state is space-antisymmetric and spin-symmetric. In this case the fermionic ground state maps to the spinless bosonic Lieb-Liniger gas. An external magnetic field with a longitudinal gradient causes a Stern-Gerlach spatial separation of the corresponding trapped Fermi gas with respect to various values of SzS_z.Comment: 4+ pages, 1 figure, revtex4. Submitted to PRA. Minor corrections of typos and notatio

    Interference of a Tonks-Girardeau Gas on a Ring

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    We study the quantum dynamics of a one-dimensional gas of impenetrable bosons on a ring, and investigate the interference that results when an initially trapped gas localized on one side of the ring is released, split via an optical-dipole grating, and recombined on the other side of the ring. Large visibility interference fringes arise when the wavevector of the optical dipole grating is larger than the effective Fermi wavevector of the initial gas.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figure

    Fermi-Bose mapping for one-dimensional Bose gases

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    One-dimensional Bose gases are considered, interacting either through the hard-core potentials or through the contact delta potentials. Interest in these gases gained momentum because of the recent experimental realization of quasi-one-dimensional Bose gases in traps with tightly confined radial motion, achieving the Tonks-Girardeau (TG) regime of strongly interacting atoms. For such gases the Fermi-Bose mapping of wavefunctions is applicable. The aim of the present communication is to give a brief survey of the problem and to demonstrate the generality of this mapping by emphasizing that: (i) It is valid for nonequilibrium wavefunctions, described by the time-dependent Schr\"odinger equation, not merely for stationary wavefunctions. (ii) It gives the whole spectrum of all excited states, not merely the ground state. (iii) It applies to the Lieb-Liniger gas with the contact interaction, not merely to the TG gas of impenetrable bosons.Comment: Brief review, Latex file, 15 page

    Fermi super-Tonks-Girardeau state for attractive Fermi gases in an optical lattice

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    We demonstrate that a kind of highly excited state of strongly attractive Hubbard model, named of Fermi super-Tonks-Girardeau state, can be realized in the spin-1/2 Fermi optical lattice system by a sudden switch of interaction from the strongly repulsive regime to the strongly attractive regime. In contrast to the ground state of the attractive Hubbard model, such a state is the lowest scattering state with no pairing between attractive fermions. With the aid of Bethe-ansatz method, we calculate energies of both the Fermi Tonks-Girardeau gas and the Fermi super-Tonks-Girardeau state of spin-1/2 ultracold fermions and show that both energies approach to the same limit as the strength of the interaction goes to infinity. By exactly solving the quench dynamics of the Hubbard model, we demonstrate that the Fermi super-Tonks-Girardeau state can be transferred from the initial repulsive ground state very efficiently. This allows the experimental study of properties of Fermi super-Tonks-Girardeau gas in optical lattices.Comment: 7 pages, 7 figure

    Effective interactions, Fermi-Bose duality, and ground states of ultracold atomic vapors in tight de Broglie waveguides

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    Derivation of effective zero-range one-dimensional (1D) interactions between atoms in tight waveguides is reviewed, as is the Fermi-Bose mapping method for determination of exact and strongly-correlated states of ultracold bosonic and fermionic atomic vapors in such waveguides, including spin degrees of freedom. Odd-wave 1D interactions derived from 3D p-wave scattering are included as well as the usual even-wave interactions derived from 3D s-wave scattering, with emphasis on the role of 3D Feshbach resonances for selectively enhancing s-wave or p-wave interactions. A duality between 1D fermions and bosons with zero-range interactions suggested by Cheon and Shigehara is shown to hold for the effective 1D dynamics of a spinor Fermi gas with both even and odd-wave interactions and that of a spinor Bose gas with even and odd-wave interactions, with even(odd)-wave Bose coupling constants inversely related to odd(even)-wave Fermi coupling constants. Some recent applications of Fermi-Bose mapping to determination of many-body ground states of Bose gases and of both magnetically trapped, spin-aligned and optically trapped, spin-free Fermi gases are described, and a new generalized Fermi-Bose mapping is used to determine the phase diagram of ground-state total spin of the spinor Fermi gas as a function of the even and odd-wave coupling constants.Comment: 16 pages, 3 figures. Submitted to Optics Communications for special issue "Degenerate Quantum Gases

    Violation of self-similarity in the expansion of a 1D Bose gas

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    The expansion of a 1D Bose gas is investigated employing the Lieb-Liniger equation of state within the local density approximation. We show that during the expansion the density profile of the gas does not follow a self-similar solution, as one would expect from a simple scaling Ansatz. We carry out a variational calculation, which recovers the numerical results for the expansion, the equilibrium properties of the density profile, and the frequency of the lowest compressional mode. The variational approach allows for the analysis of the expansion in all interaction regimes between the mean field and the Tonks-Girardeau limits, and in particular shows the range of parameters for which the expansion violates self-similarity.Comment: 6 pages, 5 eps figure

    Temperature dependence of density profiles for a cloud of non-interacting fermions moving inside a harmonic trap in one dimension

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    We extend to finite temperature a Green's function method that was previously proposed to evaluate ground-state properties of mesoscopic clouds of non-interacting fermions moving under harmonic confinement in one dimension. By calculations of the particle and kinetic energy density profiles we illustrate the role of thermal excitations in smoothing out the quantum shell structure of the cloud and in spreading the particle spill-out from quantum tunnel at the edges. We also discuss the approach of the exact density profiles to the predictions of a semiclassical model often used in the theory of confined atomic gases at finite temperature.Comment: 7 pages, 4 figure

    Momentum flux density, kinetic energy density and their fluctuations for one-dimensional confined gases of non-interacting fermions

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    We present a Green's function method for the evaluation of the particle density profile and of the higher moments of the one-body density matrix in a mesoscopic system of N Fermi particles moving independently in a linear potential. The usefulness of the method is illustrated by applications to a Fermi gas confined in a harmonic potential well, for which we evaluate the momentum flux and kinetic energy densities as well as their quantal mean-square fluctuations. We also study some properties of the kinetic energy functional E_{kin}[n(x)] in the same system. Whereas a local approximation to the kinetic energy density yields a multi-valued function, an exact single-valued relationship between the density derivative of E_{kin}[n(x)] and the particle density n(x) is demonstrated and evaluated for various values of the number of particles in the system.Comment: 10 pages, 5 figure

    The Bogoliubov Theory of a BEC in Particle Representation

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    In the number-conserving Bogoliubov theory of BEC the Bogoliubov transformation between quasiparticles and particles is nonlinear. We invert this nonlinear transformation and give general expression for eigenstates of the Bogoliubov Hamiltonian in particle representation. The particle representation unveils structure of a condensate multiparticle wavefunction. We give several examples to illustrate the general formalism.Comment: 10 pages, 9 figures, version accepted for publication in Phys. Rev.

    Highly anisotropic Bose-Einstein condensates: crossover to lower dimensionality

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    We develop a simple analytical model based on a variational method to explain the properties of trapped cylindrically symmetric Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) of varying degrees of anisotropy well into regimes of effective one dimension (1D) and effective two dimension (2D). Our results are accurate in regimes where the Thomas-Fermi approximation breaks down and they are shown to be in agreement with recent experimental data.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures; significantly more new material added; title and author-list changed due to changes in conten