1,496 research outputs found

    Effects of hydrogen/deuterium absorption on the magnetic properties of Co/Pd multilayers

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    The effects of hydrogen (H2) and deuterium (D2) absorption were studied in two Co/Pd multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) using polarized neutron reflectivity (PNR). PNR was measured in an external magnetic field H applied in the plane of the sample with the magnetization M confined in the plane for {\mu}_o H= 6.0 T and partially out of plane at 0.65 T. Nominal thicknesses of the Co and Pd layers were 2.5 {\AA} and 21 {\AA}, respectively. Because of these small values, the actual layer chemical composition, thickness, and interface roughness parameters were determined from the nuclear scattering length density profile ({\rho}_n) and its derivative obtained from both x-ray reflectivity and PNR, and uncertainties were determined using Monte Carlo analysis. The PNR {\rho}_n showed that although D2 absorption occurred throughout the samples, absorption in the multilayer stack was modest (0.02 D per Pd atom) and thus did not expand. Direct magnetometry showed that H2 absorption decreased the total M at saturation and increased the component of M in the plane of the sample when not at saturation. The PNR magnetic scattering length density ({\rho}_m) revealed that the Pd layers in the multilayer stack were magnetized and that their magnetization was preferentially modified upon D2 absorption. In one sample, a modulation of M with twice the multilayer period was observed at {\mu}_o H= 0.65 T, which increased upon D2 absorption. These results indicate that H2 or D2 absorption decreases both the PMA and total magnetization of the samples. The lack of measurable expansion during absorption indicates that these changes are primarily governed by modification of the electronic structure of the material.Comment: to appear in Physics review B, 201

    Theoretical and Experimental Adsorption Studies of Polyelectrolytes on an Oppositely Charged Surface

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    Using self-assembly techniques, x-ray reflectivity measurements, and computer simulations, we study the effective interaction between charged polymer rods and surfaces. Long-time Brownian dynamics simulations are used to measure the effective adhesion force acting on the rods in a model consisting of a planar array of uniformly positively charged, stiff rods and a negatively charged planar substrate in the presence of explicit monovalent counterions and added monovalent salt ions in a continuous, isotropic dielectric medium. This electrostatic model predicts an attractive polymer-surface adhesion force that is weakly dependent on the bulk salt concentration and that shows fair agreement with a Debye-Huckel approximation for the macroion interaction at salt concentrations near 0.1 M. Complementary x-ray reflectivity experiments on poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium) chloride (PDDA) monolayer films on the native oxide of silicon show that monolayer structure, electron density, and surface roughness are likewise independent of the bulk ionic strength of the solution.Comment: Revtex, prb format; uses amssym

    Magnetically asymmetric interfaces in a (LaMnO3_3)/(SrMnO3_3) superlattice due to structural asymmetries

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    Polarized neutron reflectivity measurements of a ferromagnetic [(LaMnO3_3)11.8_{11.8}/(SrMnO3_3)4.4_{4.4}]6_6 superlattice reveal a modulated magnetic structure with an enhanced magnetization at the interfaces where LaMnO3_3 was deposited on SrMnO3_3 (LMO/SMO). However, the opposite interfaces (SMO/LMO) are found to have a reduced ferromagnetic moment. The magnetic asymmetry arises from the difference in lateral structural roughness of the two interfaces observed via electron microscopy, with strong ferromagnetism present at the interfaces that are atomically smooth over tens of nanometers. This result demonstrates that atomic-scale roughness can destabilize interfacial phases in complex oxide heterostructures.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figure

    Suppressed magnetization in La0.7_{0.7}Ca0.3_{0.3}MnO3_3/YBa2_2Cu3_3O7δ_{7-\delta} superlattices

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    We studied the magnetic properties of La0.7_{0.7}Ca0.3_{0.3}MnO3_3 / YBa2_2Cu3_3O7δ_{7-\delta} superlattices. Magnetometry showed that with increasing YBa2_2Cu3_3O7δ_{7-\delta} layer thickness the saturation magnetization per La0.7_{0.7}Ca0.3_{0.3}MnO3_3 layer decreases. From polarized neutron reflectometry we determined that this magnetization reduction is due to an inhomogenous magnetization depth profile arising from the suppression of magnetization near the La0.7_{0.7}Ca0.3_{0.3}MnO3_3 / YBa2_2Cu3_3O7δ_{7-\delta} interface. Electron energy loss spectroscopy indicates an increased 3d band occupation of the Mn atoms in the La0.7_{0.7}Ca0.3_{0.3}MnO3_3 layers at the interface. Thus, the suppression of ferromagnetic order at the La0.7_{0.7}Ca0.3_{0.3}MnO3_3 / YBa2_2Cu3_3O7δ_{7-\delta} interface is most likely due to charge transfer between the two materials.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures, submitted to Phys. Rev.

    Clergy Interest in Innovative Collaboration with Psychologists

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    What forms of innovative collaboration are possible between clergy and psychologists? A total of 117 clergypersons (63% response rate) rated 6 scenarios of collaboration, indicating their level of interest and the extent to which they would like to remain involved with the psychologist. The scenarios were derived from two categories of collaboration articulated by in previous research: mental health services and enhancing parish life. Overall, clergy expressed relatively modest levels of interest in innovative collaboration, though they were somewhat interested in mental health consultation services. Many clergy refer troubled parishioners to clinical or counseling psychologists for treatment, but appear less interested in more innovative forms of collaboration