219 research outputs found

    Coupled-channel pseudo-potential description of the Feshbach resonance in two dimensions

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    We derive pseudo-potentials that describe the scattering between two particles in two spatial dimensions for any partial wave m, whose scattering strength is parameterized in terms of the m-dependent phase shift. Using our m=0 pseudo-potential, we develop a coupled channel model with 2D zero-range interactions, which describes the two-body physics across a Feshbach resonance. Our model predicts the scattering length, the binding energy and the "closed channel molecular fraction" of two particles; these observables can be measured in experiments on ultracold quasi-2D atomic Bose and Fermi gases with present-day technology.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figure

    Theory of spinor Fermi and Bose gases in tight atom waveguides

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    Divergence-free pseudopotentials for spatially even and odd-wave interactions in spinor Fermi gases in tight atom waveguides are derived. The Fermi-Bose mapping method is used to relate the effectively one-dimensional fermionic many-body problem to that of a spinor Bose gas. Depending on the relative magnitudes of the even and odd-wave interactions, the N-atom ground state may have total spin S=0, S=N/2, and possibly also intermediate values, the case S=N/2 applying near a p-wave Feshbach resonance, where the N-fermion ground state is space-antisymmetric and spin-symmetric. In this case the fermionic ground state maps to the spinless bosonic Lieb-Liniger gas. An external magnetic field with a longitudinal gradient causes a Stern-Gerlach spatial separation of the corresponding trapped Fermi gas with respect to various values of SzS_z.Comment: 4+ pages, 1 figure, revtex4. Submitted to PRA. Minor corrections of typos and notatio

    Geometry of quantum observables and thermodynamics of small systems

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    The concept of ergodicity---the convergence of the temporal averages of observables to their ensemble averages---is the cornerstone of thermodynamics. The transition from a predictable, integrable behavior to ergodicity is one of the most difficult physical phenomena to treat; the celebrated KAM theorem is the prime example. This Letter is founded on the observation that for many classical and quantum observables, the sum of the ensemble variance of the temporal average and the ensemble average of temporal variance remains constant across the integrability-ergodicity transition. We show that this property induces a particular geometry of quantum observables---Frobenius (also known as Hilbert-Schmidt) one---that naturally encodes all the phenomena associated with the emergence of ergodicity: the Eigenstate Thermalization effect, the decrease in the inverse participation ratio, and the disappearance of the integrals of motion. As an application, we use this geometry to solve a known problem of optimization of the set of conserved quantities---regardless of whether it comes from symmetries or from finite-size effects---to be incorporated in an extended thermodynamical theory of integrable, near-integrable, or mesoscopic systems

    Atom-Atom Scattering Under Cylindrical Harmonic Confinement: Numerical and Analytical Studies of the Confinement Induced Resonance

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    In a recent article [M. Olshanii, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 81}, 938 (1998)], an analytic solution of atom-atom scattering with a delta-function pseudopotential interaction in the presence of transverse harmonic confinement yielded an effective coupling constant that diverged at a `confinement induced resonance.' In the present work, we report numerical results that corroborate this resonance for more realistic model potentials. In addition, we extend the previous theoretical discussion to include two-atom bound states in the presence of transverse confinement, for which we also report numerical results hereComment: New version with major revisions. We now provide a detailed physical interpretation of the confinement-induced resonance in tight atomic waveguide

    The dynamics of digits: Calculating pi with Galperin's billiards

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    In Galperin billiards, two balls colliding with a hard wall form an analog calculator for the digits of the number π\pi. This classical, one-dimensional three-body system (counting the hard wall) calculates the digits of π\pi in a base determined by the ratio of the masses of the two particles. This base can be any integer, but it can also be an irrational number, or even the base can be π\pi itself. This article reviews previous results for Galperin billiards and then pushes these results farther. We provide a complete explicit solution for the balls' positions and velocities as a function of the collision number and time. We demonstrate that Galperin billiard can be mapped onto a two-particle Calogero-type model. We identify a second dynamical invariant for any mass ratio that provides integrability for the system, and for a sequence of specific mass ratios we identify a third dynamical invariant that establishes superintegrability. Integrability allows us to derive some new exact results for trajectories, and we apply these solutions to analyze the systematic errors that occur in calculating the digits of π\pi with Galperin billiards, including curious cases with irrational number bases.Comment: 30 pages, 13 figure

    Three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii solitary waves in optical lattices: stabilization using the artificial quartic kinetic energy induced by lattice shaking

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    In this Letter, we show that a three-dimensional Bose-Einstein solitary wave can become stable if the dispersion law is changed from quadratic to quartic. We suggest a way to realize the quartic dispersion, using shaken optical lattices. Estimates show that the resulting solitary waves can occupy as little as ∼1/20\sim 1/20-th of the Brillouin zone in each of the three directions and contain as many as N=103N = 10^{3} atoms, thus representing a \textit{fully mobile} macroscopic three-dimensional object.Comment: 8 pages, 1 figure, accepted in Phys. Lett.
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