4,061 research outputs found

    Impossibility of distant indirect measurement of the quantum Zeno effect

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    We critically study the possibility of quantum Zeno effect for indirect measurements. If the detector is prepared to detect the emitted signal from the core system, and the detector does not reflect the signal back to the core system, then we can prove the decay probability of the system is not changed by the continuous measurement of the signal and the quantum Zeno effect never takes place. This argument also applies to the quantum Zeno effect for accelerated two-level systems, unstable particle decay, etc.Comment: 14 pages, 2 figure

    Local virial relation and velocity anisotropy for collisionless self-gravitating systems

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    The collisionless quasi-equilibrium state realized after the cold collapse of self-gravitating systems has two remarkable characters. One of them is the linear temperature-mass (TM) relation, which yields a characteristic non-Gaussian velocity distribution. Another is the local virial (LV) relation, the virial relation which holds even locally in collisionless systems through phase mixing such as cold-collapse. A family of polytropes are examined from a view point of these two characters. The LV relation imposes a strong constraint on these models: only polytropes with index n5n \sim 5 with a flat boundary condition at the center are compatible with the numerical results, except for the outer region. Using the analytic solutions based on the static and spherical Jeans equation, we show that this incompatibility in the outer region implies the important effect of anisotropy of velocity dispersion. Furthermore, the velocity anisotropy is essential in explaining various numerical results under the condition of the local virial relation.Comment: 8 pages, 5 figures, Proceedings of CN-Kyoto International Workshop on Complexity and Nonextensivity; added a reference for section

    Classicalization of Quantum Fluctuation in Inflationary Universe

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    We discuss the classicalization of a quantum state induced by an environment in the inflationary stage of the universe. The classicalization is necessary for the homogeneous ground sate to become classical non-homogeneous one accompanied with the statistical fluctuation, which is a plausible candidate for the seeds of structure formation. Using simple models, we show that i) the two classicalization criteria, the classical correlation and quantum decoherence, are simultaneously satisfied by the environment and that ii) the power spectrum of the resultant statistical fluctuation depends upon the detail of the classicalization process. Especially, the result ii) means that, taking account of the classicalization process, the inflationary scenario does not necessarily predict the unique spectrum which is usually believed.Comment: 24 pages, Latex, 2 Postscript figure

    Temperature-Dependent Thermoelastic Anisotropy of the Phenyl Pyrimidine Liquid Crystal

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    Friction in inflaton equations of motion

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    The possibility of a friction term in the equation of motion for a scalar field is investigated in non-equilibrium field theory. The results obtained differ greatly from existing estimates based on linear response theory, and suggest that dissipation is not well represented by a term of the form ηϕ˙\eta\dot{\phi}.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures, RevTex4. An obscurity in the original version has been clarifie