495 research outputs found

    Charged-Particle Decay at Finite Temperature

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    Radiative corrections to the decay rate of charged fermions caused by the presence of a thermal bath of photons are calculated in the limit when temperatures are below the masses of all charged particles involved. The cancellation of finite-temperature infrared divergences in the decay rate is described in detail. Temperature-dependent radiative corrections to a two-body decay of a hypothetical charged fermion and to electroweak decays of a muon are given. We touch upon possible implications of these results for charged particles in the early Universe.Comment: 18 pages, 6 figures. v2: typos corrected, bibliography revised, content matches published versio

    A relativistic non-relativistic Goldstone theorem: gapped Goldstones at finite charge density

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    We adapt the Goldstone theorem to study spontaneous symmetry breaking in relativistic theo- ries at finite charge density. It is customary to treat systems at finite density via non-relativistic Hamiltonians. Here we highlight the importance of the underlying relativistic dynamics. This leads to seemingly new results whenever the charge in question is spontaneously broken and does not commute with other broken charges. We find that that the latter interpolate gapped excitations. In contrast, all existing versions of the Goldstone theorem predict the existence of gapless modes. We derive exact non-perturbative expressions for their gaps, in terms of the chemical potential and of the symmetry algebra.Comment: 5 pages. v2: minor modifications, matches the PRL versio

    Non-relativistic bound states at finite temperature (II): the muonic hydrogen

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    We illustrate how to apply modern effective field theory techniques and dimensional regularization to factorise the various scales which appear in QED bound states at finite temperature. We focus here on the muonic hydrogen atom. Vacuum polarization effects make the physics of this atom at finite temperature very close to that of heavy quarkonium states. We comment on the implications of our results for these states in the quark gluon plasma. In particular, we estimate the effects of a finite charm quark mass in the dissociation temperature of bottomonium.Comment: 22 pages, 8 figures. Journal version, reference adde

    Gamma flashes from relativistic electron-positron plasma droplets

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    Ultra-intense lasers are expected to produce, in near future, relativistic electron-positron plasma droplets. Considering the local photon production rate in complete leading order in quantum electrodynamics (QED), we point out that these droplets are interesting sources of gamma ray flashesComment: 4 pages, 6 figures; Text has been revised and new refs. are adde

    Momentum Broadening of a Fast Parton in a Perturbative Quark-Gluon Plasma

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    The average transverse momentum transfer per unit path length to a fast parton scattering elastically in a perturbative quark-gluon plasma is related to the radiative energy loss of the parton. We first calculate the momentum transfer coefficient q^\hat q in terms of a classical Langevin problem and then define it quantum-mechanically through scattering matrix element. After treating the well known case of a quark-gluon plasma in equilibrium we consider an off-equilibrium unstable plasma. As a specific example, we treat the two-stream plasma with unstable modes of longitudinal chromoelectric field. In the presence of the instabilities, q^\hat q is shown to exponentially grow in time.Comment: Updated version containing an analysis of insufficiencies in previous calculations of momentum broadening in unstable plasma

    The Wake of a Heavy Quark in Non-Abelian Plasmas : Comparing Kinetic Theory and the AdS/CFT Correspondence

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    We compute the non-equilibrium stress tensor induced by a heavy quark moving through weakly coupled QCD plasma at the speed of light and compare the result to N = 4 Super Yang Mills theory at strong coupling. The QCD Boltzmann equation is reformulated as a Fokker-Planck equation in a leading log approximation which is used to compute the induced stress. The transition from nonequilibrium at short distances to equilibrium at large distances is analyzed with first and second order hydrodynamics. Even after accounting for the obvious differences in shear lengths, the strongly coupled theory is significantly better described by hydrodynamics at sub-asymptotic distances. We argue that this difference between the kinetic and AdS/CFT theories is related to the second order hydrodynamic coefficient τπ\tau_\pi. τπ\tau_\pi is numerically large in units of the shear length for theories based on the Boltzmann equation.Comment: 31 pages, 8 figure

    Thermal Dimuon Yields at NA60

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    Dilepton emission rates from a hadronic gas at finite temperature and baryon density are completely constrained by broken chiral symmetry in a density expansion. The rates can be expressed in terms of vacuum correlations which are measured in e+ee^+e^- annihilation, τ\tau decays and photo-reactions on nucleons and nuclei. In this paper, the theoretical results are summarized and the total dimuon yield is calculated by integrating the dimuon rates over the space-time history of a fireball based on hydrodynamic calculations with CERN SPS conditions. The resulting dimuon yield is in good agreement with the recent measurements reported by NA60.Comment: 9 pages, 8 figure

    The effect of an imaginary part of the Schwinger-Dyson equation at finite temperature and density

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    We examined the effect of an imaginary part of the ladder approximation Schwinger-Dyson equation. We show the imaginary part enhances the effect of the first order transition, and affects a tricritical point. In particular, a chemical potential at a tricritical point is moved about 200(MeV). Thus, one should not ignore the imaginary part. On the other hand, since an imaginary part is small away from a tricritical point, one should be able to ignore an imaginary part. In addition, we also examined the contribution of the wave function renormalization constant.Comment: 12 pages, 14 figure
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