30,058 research outputs found

    Evolving Lucene search queries for text classification

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    We describe a method for generating accurate, compact, human understandable text classifiers. Text datasets are indexed using Apache Lucene and Genetic Programs are used to construct Lucene search queries. Genetic programs acquire fitness by producing queries that are effective binary classifiers for a particular category when evaluated against a set of training documents. We describe a set of functions and terminals and provide results from classification tasks

    Correcting 100 years of misunderstanding: electric fields in superconductors, hole superconductivity, and the Meissner effect

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    From the outset of superconductivity research it was assumed that no electrostatic fields could exist inside superconductors, and this assumption was incorporated into conventional London electrodynamics. Yet the London brothers themselves initially (in 1935) had proposed an electrodynamic theory of superconductors that allowed for static electric fields in their interior, which they unfortunately discarded a year later. I argue that the Meissner effect in superconductors necessitates the existence of an electrostatic field in their interior, originating in the expulsion of negative charge from the interior to the surface when a metal becomes superconducting. The theory of hole superconductivity predicts this physics, and associated with it a macroscopic spin current in the ground state of superconductors ("Spin Meissner effect"), qualitatively different from what is predicted by conventional BCS-London theory. A new London-like electrodynamic description of superconductors is proposed to describe this physics. Within this theory superconductivity is driven by lowering of quantum kinetic energy, the fact that the Coulomb repulsion strongly depends on the character of the charge carriers, namely whether electron- or hole-like, and the spin-orbit interaction. The electron-phonon interaction does not play a significant role, yet the existence of an isotope effect in many superconductors is easily understood. In the strong coupling regime the theory appears to favor local charge inhomogeneity. The theory is proposed to apply to all superconducting materials, from the elements to the high TcT_c cuprates and pnictides, is highly falsifiable, and explains a wide variety of experimental observations.Comment: Proceedings of the conference "Quantum phenomena in complex matter 2011 - Stripes 2011", Rome, 10 July -16 July 2011, to be published in J. Supercond. Nov. Mag

    Quantum Monte Carlo and exact diagonalization study of a dynamic Hubbard model

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    A one-dimensional model of electrons locally coupled to spin-1/2 degrees of freedom is studied by numerical techniques. The model is one in the class of dynamicdynamic HubbardHubbard modelsmodels that describe the relaxation of an atomic orbital upon double electron occupancy due to electron-electron interactions. We study the parameter regime where pairing occurs in this model by exact diagonalization of small clusters. World line quantum Monte Carlo simulations support the results of exact diagonalization for larger systems and show that kinetic energy is lowered when pairing occurs. The qualitative physics of this model and others in its class, obtained through approximate analytic calculations, is that superconductivity occurs through hole undressing even in parameter regimes where the effective on-site interaction is strongly repulsive. Our numerical results confirm the expected qualitative behavior, and show that pairing will occur in a substantially larger parameter regime than predicted by the approximate low energy effective Hamiltonian.Comment: Some changes made in response to referees comments. To be published in Phys.Rev.

    A general parametrization for the long-range part of neutrinoless double beta decay

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    Double beta decay has been proven to be a powerful tool to constrain B‚ąíLB-L violating physics beyond the standard model. We present a representation for the long-range part of the general 0őĹő≤ő≤0\nu\beta\beta decay rate allowed by Lorentz-invariance. Combined with the short range part this general parametrization in terms of effective B‚ąíLB-L violating couplings will provide the 0őĹő≤ő≤0\nu\beta\beta limits on arbitrary lepton number violating theories.Comment: Talk presented by H. P\"as at the Erice School on Nuclear Physics, 19th course "Neutrinos in Astro, Particle and Nuclear Physics", Erice, Italy, 16-24 September 1997, 2 pages, Latex, requires worldsci.st

    A superformula for neutrinoless double beta decay II: The short range part

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    A general Lorentz-invariant parameterization for the short-range part of the 0vBB decay rate is derived. Combined with the long range part already published this general parameterization in terms of effective B-L violating couplings allows one to extract the 0vBB limits on arbitrary lepton number violating theories.Comment: 8 pages, LaTeX, 2 figure

    Meissner effect, Spin Meissner effect and charge expulsion in superconductors

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    The Meissner effect and the Spin Meissner effect are the spontaneous generation of charge and spin current respectively near the surface of a metal making a transition to the superconducting state. The Meissner effect is well known but, I argue, not explained by the conventional theory, the Spin Meissner effect has yet to be detected. I propose that both effects take place in all superconductors, the first one in the presence of an applied magnetostatic field, the second one even in the absence of applied external fields. Both effects can be understood under the assumption that electrons expand their orbits and thereby lower their quantum kinetic energy in the transition to superconductivity. Associated with this process, the metal expels negative charge from the interior to the surface and an electric field is generated in the interior. The resulting charge current can be understood as arising from the magnetic Lorentz force on radially outgoing electrons, and the resulting spin current can be understood as arising from a spin Hall effect originating in the Rashba-like coupling of the electron magnetic moment to the internal electric field. The associated electrodynamics is qualitatively different from London electrodynamics, yet can be described by a small modification of the conventional London equations. The stability of the superconducting state and its macroscopic phase coherence hinge on the fact that the orbital angular momentum of the carriers of the spin current is found to be exactly ‚ĄŹ/2\hbar/2, indicating a topological origin. The simplicity and universality of our theory argue for its validity, and the occurrence of superconductivity in many classes of materials can be understood within our theory.Comment: Submitted to SLAFES XX Proceeding

    R-parity violation: Hide & Seek

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    We point out that, if R-parity is broken spontaneously, the neutralino can decay to the final state majoron plus neutrino, which from the experimental point of view is indistinguishable from the standard missing momentum signal of supersymmetry. We identify the regions of parameter space where this decay mode is dominant and show that they are independent of R-parity conserving SUSY parameters. Thus, (a) only very weak limits on R-parity violating couplings can be derived from the observation of missing momentum events and (b) at future collider experiments huge statistics might be necessary to establish that R-parity indeed is broken. Parameter combinations which give calculated relic neutralino density larger than the measured dark matter density in case of conserved R-parity are valid points in this scenario and their phenomenology at the LHC deserves to be studied.Comment: 8 pages, 2 figures; ref. added; matches published version (title changed in the published version

    Predicted electric field near small superconducting ellipsoids

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    We predict the existence of large electric fields near the surface of superconducting bodies of ellipsoidal shape of dimensions comparable to the penetration depth. The electric field is quadrupolar in nature with significant corrections from higher order multipoles. Prolate (oblate) superconducting ellipsoids are predicted to exhibit fields consistent with negative (positive) quadrupole moments, reflecting the fundamental charge asymmetry of matter.Comment: To be published in Phys.Rev.Let
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