24,741 research outputs found

    Stationary quantum Markov process for the Wigner function

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    As a stochastic model for quantum mechanics we present a stationary quantum Markov process for the time evolution of the Wigner function on a lattice phase space Z_N x Z_N with N odd. By introducing a phase factor extension to the phase space, each particle can be treated independently. This is an improvement on earlier methods that require the whole distribution function to determine the evolution of a constituent particle. The process has branching and vanishing points, though a finite time interval can be maintained between the branchings. The procedure to perform a simulation using the process is presented.Comment: 12 pages, no figures; replaced with version accepted for publication in J. Phys. A, title changed, an example adde

    Initial Shock Waves for Explosive Nucleosynthesis in Type II Supernova

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    We have performed 1-dimensional calculations for explosive nucleosynthesis in collapse-driven supernova and investigated its sensitivity to the initial form of the shock wave. We have found the tendency that the peak temperature becomes higher around the mass cut if the input energy is injected more in the form of kinetic energy rather than internal energy. Then, the mass cut becomes larger, and, as a result, neutron-rich matter is less included in the ejecta; this is favorable for producing the observational data compared with a previous model. Our results imply that the standard method to treat various processes for stellar evolution, such as convection and electron capture during the silicon burning stage, are still compatible with the calculation of explosive nucleosynthesis.Comment: 20 pages, 6 figures, LaTe

    Explosive Nucleosynthesis in Axisymmetrically Deformed Type II Supernovae

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    Explosive nucleosynthesis under the axisymmetric explosion in Type II supernova has been performed by means of two dimensional hydrodynamical calculations. We have compared the results with the observations of SN 1987A. Our chief findings are as follows: (1) 44Ti^{44}Ti is synthesized so much as to explain the tail of the bolometric light curve of SN 1987A. We think this is because the alpha-rich freezeout takes place more actively under the axisymmetric explosion. (2) 57Ni^{57}Ni and 58Ni^{58}Ni tend to be overproduced compared with the observations. However, this tendency relies strongly on the progenitor's model. We have also compared the abundance of each element in the mass number range A=1673A= 16-73 with the solar values. We have found three outstanding features. (1) For the nuclei in the range A=1640A=16-40, their abundances are insensitive to the initial form of the shock wave. This insensitivity is favored since the spherical calculations thus far can explain the solar system abundances in this mass range. (2) There is an enhancement around A=45 in the axisymmetric explosion compared with the spherical explosion fairly well. In particular, 44Ca^{44}Ca, which is underproduced in the present spherical calculations, is enhanced significantly. (3) In addition, there is an enhancement around A=65. This tendency does not rely on the form of the mass cut but of the initial shock wave. This enhancement may be the problem of the overproduction in this mass range, although this effect would be relatively small since Type I supernovae are chiefly responsible for this mass number range.Comment: 32 pages, 12 figures, LaTe

    Analysis of (K^-,K^+) inclusive spectrum with semiclassical distorted wave model

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    The inclusive K^+ momentum spectrum in the 12C(K^-,K^+) reaction is calculated by the semiclassical distorted wave (SCDW) model, including the transition to the \Xi^- bound state. The calculated spectra with the strength of the \Xi^--nucleus potential -50, -20, and +10 MeV are compared with the experimental data measured at KEK with p_{K^-}=1.65 GeV/c. The shape of the spectrum is reproduced by the calculation. Though the inclusive spectrum changes systematically depending on the potential strength, it is not possible to obtain a constraint on the potential from the present data. The calculated spectrum is found to have strong emission-angle dependence. We also investigate the incident K^- momentum dependence of the spectrum to see the effect of the Fermi motion of the target nucleons which is explicitly treated in the SCDW method.Comment: 7 pages, 5 figure

    Unitary-process discrimination with error margin

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    We investigate a discrimination scheme between unitary processes. By introducing a margin for the probability of erroneous guess, this scheme interpolates the two standard discrimination schemes: minimum-error and unambiguous discrimination. We present solutions for two cases. One is the case of two unitary processes with general prior probabilities. The other is the case with a group symmetry: the processes comprise a projective representation of a finite group. In the latter case, we found that unambiguous discrimination is a kind of "all or nothing": the maximum success probability is either 0 or 1. We also closely analyze how entanglement with an auxiliary system improves discrimination performance.Comment: 9 pages, 3 figures, presentation improved, typos corrected, final versio

    Optimal estimation of a physical observable's expectation value for pure states

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    We study the optimal way to estimate the quantum expectation value of a physical observable when a finite number of copies of a quantum pure state are presented. The optimal estimation is determined by minimizing the squared error averaged over all pure states distributed in a unitary invariant way. We find that the optimal estimation is "biased", though the optimal measurement is given by successive projective measurements of the observable. The optimal estimate is not the sample average of observed data, but the arithmetic average of observed and "default nonobserved" data, with the latter consisting of all eigenvalues of the observable.Comment: v2: 5pages, typos corrected, journal versio