1,164 research outputs found

    Why is Tin so soft?

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    The distribution of isoscalar monopole strength in the neutron-even 112-124Sn-isotopes has been computed using a relativistic random-phase-approximation approach. The accurately-calibrated model used here (``FSUGold'') has been successful in reproducing both ground-state observables as well as collective excitations - including the giant monopole resonance (GMR) in 90Zr, 144Sm, and 208Pb. Yet this same model significantly overestimates the GMR energies in the Sn isotopes. It is argued that the question of ``Why is Tin so soft?'' becomes an important challenge to the field and one that should be answered without sacrificing the success already achieved by several theoretical models.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures to be submitted to PR

    Spin-isospin nuclear response using the existing microscopic Skyrme functionals

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    Our paper aims at providing an answer to the question whether one can reliably describe the properties of the most important spin-isospin nuclear excitations, by using the available non-relativistic Skyrme energy functionals. Our method, which has been introduced in a previous publication devoted to the Isobaric Analog states, is the self-consistent Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA). The inclusion of pairing is instrumental for describing a number of experimentally measured spherical systems which are characterized by open shells. We discuss the effect of isoscalar and isovector pairing correlations. Based on the results for the Gamow-Teller resonance in 90^{90}Zr, in 208^{208}Pb and in few Sn isotopes, we draw definite conclusions on the performance of different Skyrme parametrizations, and we suggest improvements for future fits. We also use the spin-dipole resonance as a benchmark of our statements.Comment: Submitted to Phys. Rev.

    The Giant Monopole Resonance in Pb isotopes

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    The extraction of the nuclear incompressibility from the isoscalar giant monopole resonance (GMR) measurements is analysed. Both pairing and mutually enhanced magicity (MEM) effects play a role in the shift of the GMR energy between the doubly closed shell 208^{208}Pb nucleus and other Pb isotopes. Pairing effects are microscopically predicted whereas the MEM effect is phenomenologically evaluated. Accurate measurements of the GMR in open-shell Pb isotopes are called for.Comment: 4 page

    Spectroscopy of neutron-rich nitrogen isotopes with Agata+Paris+Vamos

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    Excited states of 17N, 18N and 19N were investigated through the measurement of gamma rays, following their population via deep-inelastic reactions induced by an 18O beam (7 MeV/u) on a thick 181Ta target. The experimental setup comprised the AGATA+PARIS detection system, coupled to the VAMOS++ magnetic spectrometer. In the 17N nucleus, the analysis of gamma-ray transitions de-exciting two states around 4-5 MeV clearly pointed to discrepancies with the lifetime values reported in literature. Three new gamma rays were observed in 18N at the energies of 1662.3 (3) keV, 2073.4 (8) keV and 2300.9 (8) keV, and hints for other two new transitions around 1566 keV and 1720 keV were found. In addition, a new transition with energy of 2489.7 (8) keV was observed in 19N.</p

    Short-range lifetime measurements for deep-inelastic reaction products:The 19o test case

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    An experiment, aiming at measuring lifetimes of excited states in neutron- rich C and O isotopes, was performed at the GANIL laboratory with the use of the AGATA segmented HPGe tracking array, coupled to the PARIS scintillator array and to the VAMOS++ magnetic spectrometer. The nuclei of interest were populated in transfer and deep-inelastic processes induced by an 18O beam at 126 MeV (7.0 MeV/u) on a 181Ta target. This paper contains a brief description of a novel implementation of a Monte-Carlo technique, which allowed us to obtain excited states lifetimes in the range from tens to hundreds femtoseconds for a reaction with complex initial velocity distribution, making use of the Doppler-shift attenuation method (DSAM). As a test case, we present here the analysis for two states in 19O: 2371-keV 9=2+ and 2779-keV 7=2+, for which lifetimes of őď &gt; 400 fs and őď = 140+50 -40 fs were obtained, respectively, in agreement with literature values. This newly developed approach will be essential for short lifetimes measurements in neutron-rich systems, exploiting intense ISOL-type beams, currently under development.</p

    Dipole responses in Nd and Sm isotopes with shape transitions

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    Photoabsorption cross sections of Nd and Sm isotopes from spherical to deformed even nuclei are systematically investigated by means of the quasiparticle-random-phase approximation based on the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov ground states (HFB+QRPA) using the Skyrme energy density functional. The gradual onset of deformation in the ground states as increasing the neutron number leads to characteristic features of the shape phase transition. The calculation well reproduce the isotopic dependence of broadening and emergence of a double-peak structure in the cross sections without any adjustable parameter. We also find that the deformation plays a significant role for low-energy dipole strengths. The E1E1 strengths are fragmented and considerably lowered in energy. The summed E1E1 strength up to 10 MeV is enhanced by a factor of five or more.Comment: 5 pages including 6 figure

    Where we stand on structure dependence of ISGMR in the Zr-Mo region: Implications on K_\infty

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    Isoscalar giant resonances, being the archetypal forms of collective nuclear behavior, have been studied extensively for decades with the goal of constraining bulk nuclear properties of the equation of state, as well as for modeling dynamical behaviors within stellar environments. An important such mode is the isoscalar electric giant monopole resonance (ISGMR) that can be understood as a radially symmetric density vibration within the saturated nuclear volume. The field has a few key open questions, which have been proposed and remain unresolved. One of the more provocative questions is the extra high-energy strength in the A‚Čą90A\approx 90 region, which manifested in large percentages of the E0E0 sum rule in 92^{92}Zr and 92^{92}Mo above the main ISGMR peak. The purpose of this article is to introduce these questions within the context of experimental investigations into the phenomena in the zirconium and molybdenum isotopic chains, and to address, via a discussion of previously published and preliminary results, the implications of recent experimental efforts on extraction of the nuclear incompressibility from this data.Comment: 9 pages, 7 figures, invited to be submitted to a special issue of EPJA honoring Prof. P. F. Bortigno

    The Dynamical Dipole Mode in Fusion Reactions with Exotic Nuclear Beams

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    We report the properties of the prompt dipole radiation, produced via a collective bremsstrahlung mechanism, in fusion reactions with exotic beams. We show that the gamma yield is sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy below/around saturation. Moreover we find that the angular distribution of the emitted photons from such fast collective mode can represent a sensitive probe of its excitation mechanism and of fusion dynamics in the entrance channel.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures, to appear in Phys.Rev.

    The fully self-consistent quasiparticle random phase approximation and its application to the isobaric analog resonances

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    A microscopic model aimed at the description of charge-exchange nuclear excitations along isotopic chains which include open-shell systems, is developed. It consists of quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA) made on top of Hartree-Fock-Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (HF-BCS). The calculations are performed by using the Skyrme interaction in the particle-hole channel and a zero-range, density-dependent pairing force in the particle-particle channel. At variance with the (many) versions of QRPA which are available in literature, in our work special emphasis is put on the full self-consistency. Its importance, as well as the role played by the charge-breaking terms of the nuclear Hamiltonian, like the Coulomb interaction, the charge symmetry and charge independence breaking (CSB-CIB) forces and the electromagnetic spin-orbit, are elucidated by means of numerical calculations of the isobaric analog resonances (IAR). The theoretical energies of these states along the chain of the Sn isotopes agree well with the experimental data in the stable isotopes. Predictions for unstable systems are presented.Comment: 15 pages, 6 figure

    Generation of High-Energy Photons with Large Orbital Angular Momentum by Compton Backscattering

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    Usually, photons are described by plane waves with a definite 4-momentum. In addition to plane-wave photons, "twisted photons" have recently entered the field of modern laser optics; these are coherent superpositions of plane waves with a defined projection hbar*m of the orbital angular momentum onto the propagation axis, where m is integer. In this paper, we show that it is possible to produce high-energy twisted photons by Compton backscattering of twisted laser photons off ultra-relativistic electrons. Such photons may be of interest for experiments related to the excitation and disintegration of atoms and nuclei, and for studying the photo-effect and pair production off nuclei in previously unexplored experimental regimes.Comment: 4 pages; RevTe
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