1,999 research outputs found

### String-Like Lagrangians from a Generalized Geometry

This note will use Hitchin's generalized geometry and a model of axionic
gravity developed by Warren Siegel in the mid-nineties to show that the
construction of Lagrangians based on the inner product arising from the pairing
of a vector and its dual can lead naturally to the low-energy Lagrangian of the
bosonic string.Comment: Conclusions basically unchanged, but presentation streamlined
significantly. Published versio

### Detection of edges using local geometry

Researchers described a new representation, the local geometry, for early visual processing which is motivated by results from biological vision. This representation is richer than is often used in image processing. It extracts more of the local structure available at each pixel in the image by using receptive fields that can be continuously rotated and that go to third order spatial variation. Early visual processing algorithms such as edge detectors and ridge detectors can be written in terms of various local geometries and are computationally tractable. For example, Canny's edge detector has been implemented in terms of a local geometry of order two, and a ridge detector in terms of a local geometry of order three. The edge detector in local geometry was applied to synthetic and real images and it was shown using simple interpolation schemes that sufficient information is available to locate edges with sub-pixel accuracy (to a resolution increase of at least a factor of five). This is reasonable even for noisy images because the local geometry fits a smooth surface - the Taylor series - to the discrete image data. Only local processing was used in the implementation so it can readily be implemented on parallel mesh machines such as the MPP. Researchers expect that other early visual algorithms, such as region growing, inflection point detection, and segmentation can also be implemented in terms of the local geometry and will provide sufficiently rich and robust representations for subsequent visual processing

### Exact regularized point particle method for multi-phase flows in the two-way coupling regime

Particulate flows have been largely studied under the simplifying assumptions
of one-way coupling regime where the disperse phase do not react-back on the
carrier fluid. In the context of turbulent flows, many non trivial phenomena
such as small scales particles clustering or preferential spatial accumulation
have been explained and understood. A more complete view of multiphase flows
can be gained calling into play two-way coupling effects, i.e. by accounting
for the inter-phase momentum exchange between the carrier and the suspended
phase, certainly relevant at increasing mass loading. In such regime, partially
investigated in the past by the so-called Particle In Cell (PIC) method, much
is still to be learned about the dynamics of the disperse phase and the ensuing
alteration of the carrier flow.
In this paper we present a new methodology rigorously designed to capture the
inter-phase momentum exchange for particles smaller than the smallest
hydrodynamical scale, e.g. the Kolmogorov scale in a turbulent flow. In fact,
the momentum coupling mechanism exploits the unsteady Stokes flow around a
small rigid sphere where the transient disturbance produced by each particle is
evaluated in a closed form. The particles are described as lumped, point masses
which would lead to the appearance of singularities. A rigorous regularization
procedure is conceived to extract the physically relevant interactions between
particles and fluid which avoids any "ah hoc" assumption. The approach is
suited for high efficiency implementation on massively parallel machines since
the transient disturbance produced by the particles is strongly localized in
space around the actual particle position. As will be shown, hundred thousands
particles can therefore be handled at an affordable computational cost as
demonstrated by a preliminary application to a particle laden turbulent shear
flow.Comment: Submitted to Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 56 pages, 15 figure

### Quasi-normal modes of superfluid neutron stars

We study non-radial oscillations of neutron stars with superfluid baryons, in
a general relativistic framework, including finite temperature effects. Using a
perturbative approach, we derive the equations describing stellar oscillations,
which we solve by numerical integration, employing different models of nucleon
superfluidity, and determining frequencies and gravitational damping times of
the quasi-normal modes. As expected by previous results, we find two classes of
modes, associated to superfluid and non-superfluid degrees of freedom,
respectively. We study the temperature dependence of the modes, finding that at
specific values of the temperature, the frequencies of the two classes of
quasi-normal modes show avoided crossings, and their damping times become
comparable. We also show that, when the temperature is not close to the avoided
crossings, the frequencies of the modes can be accurately computed by
neglecting the coupling between normal and superfluid degrees of freedom. Our
results have potential implications on the gravitational wave emission from
neutron stars.Comment: 16 pages, 7 figures, 2 table

### Dissipation in relativistic superfluid neutron stars

We analyze damping of oscillations of general relativistic superfluid neutron
stars. To this aim we extend the method of decoupling of superfluid and normal
oscillation modes first suggested in [Gusakov & Kantor PRD 83, 081304(R)
(2011)]. All calculations are made self-consistently within the finite
temperature superfluid hydrodynamics. The general analytic formulas are derived
for damping times due to the shear and bulk viscosities. These formulas
describe both normal and superfluid neutron stars and are valid for oscillation
modes of arbitrary multipolarity. We show that: (i) use of the ordinary
one-fluid hydrodynamics is a good approximation, for most of the stellar
temperatures, if one is interested in calculation of the damping times of
normal f-modes; (ii) for radial and p-modes such an approximation is poor;
(iii) the temperature dependence of damping times undergoes a set of rapid
changes associated with resonance coupling of neighboring oscillation modes.
The latter effect can substantially accelerate viscous damping of normal modes
in certain stages of neutron-star thermal evolution.Comment: 25 pages, 9 figures, 1 table, accepted for publication in MNRA

### Application of the exact regularized point particle method (ERPP) to particle laden turbulent shear flows in the two-way coupling regime

The Exact Regularized Point Particle method (ERPP), which is a new inter-phase momentum coupling ap- proach, is extensively used for the first time to explore the response of homogeneous shear turbulence in presence of different particle populations. Particle suspensions with different Stokes number and/or mass loading are considered. Particles with Kolmogorov Stokes number of order one suppress turbulent kinetic energy when the mass loading is increased. In contrast, heavier particles leave this observable almost un- changed with respect to the reference uncoupled case. Turbulence modulation is found to be anisotropic, leaving the streamwise velocity fluctuations less affected by unitary Stokes number particles whilst it is increased by heavier particles. The analysis of the energy spectra shows that the turbulence modulation occurs throughout the entire range of resolved scales leading to non-trivial augmentation/depletion of the energy content among the different velocity components at different length-scales. In this regard, the ERPP approach is able to provide convergent statistics up to the smallest dissipative scales of the flow, giving the opportunity to trust the ensuing results. Indeed, a substantial modification of the turbu- lent fluctuations at the smallest-scales, i.e. at the level of the velocity gradients, is observed due to the particle backreaction. Small scale anisotropies are enhanced and fluctuations show a greater level of in- termittency as measured by the probability distribution function of the longitudinal velocity increments and by the corresponding flatness

### On the geometry of double field theory

Double field theory was developed by theoretical physicists as a way to
encompass $T$-duality. In this paper, we express the basic notions of the
theory in differential-geometric invariant terms, in the framework of
para-Kaehler manifolds. We define metric algebroids, which are vector bundles
with a bracket of cross sections that has the same metric compatibility
property as a Courant bracket. We show that a double field gives rise to two
canonical connections, whose scalar curvatures can be integrated to obtain
actions. Finally, in analogy with Dirac structures, we define and study
para-Dirac structures on double manifolds.Comment: The paper will appear in J. Math. Phys., 201

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