2,200 research outputs found

    Repulsive gravity in the very early Universe

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    I present two examples in which the curvature singularity of a radiation-dominated Universe is regularized by (a) the repulsive effects of spin interactions, and (b) the repulsive effects arising from a breaking of the local gravitational gauge symmetry. In both cases the collapse of an initial, asymptotically flat state is stopped, and the Universe bounces towards a state of decelerated expansion. The emerging picture is typical of the pre-big bang scenario, with the main difference that the string cosmology dilaton is replaced by a classical radiation fluid, and the solutions are not duality-invariant.Comment: 9 pages, LATEX, one figure included using epsf. Awarded the Fourth Prize in the 1998 Awards for Essays on Gravitation (Gravity Research Foundation, Wellesley Hills, Ma). To appear in Gen. Rel. Grav. An updated collection of papers on the pre-big bang scenario is available at http://www.to.infn.it/~gasperi

    Non-local dilaton coupling to dark matter: cosmic acceleration and pressure backreaction

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    A model of non-local dilaton interactions, motivated by string duality symmetries, is applied to a scenario of "coupled quintessence" in which the dilaton dark energy is non-locally coupled to the dark-matter sources. It is shown that the non-local effects tend to generate a backreaction which -- for strong enough coupling -- can automatically compensate the acceleration due to the negative pressure of the dilaton potential, thus asymptotically restoring the standard (dust-dominated) decelerated regime. This result is illustrated by analytical computations and numerical examples.Comment: 11 pages, 1 figure ep

    Quantum Squeezing and Cosmological Entropy Production

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    The entropy growth in a cosmological process of pair production is completely determined by the associated squeezing parameter, and is insensitive to the number of particles in the initial state. The total produced entropy may represent a significant fraction of the entropy stored today in the cosmic black-body radiation, provided pair production originates from a change in the background metric at a curvature scale of the Planck order.Comment: 7 pages, plain TEX, to appear in Class.Quantum Grav., CERN-TH.6954/9

    Low-energy graceful exit in anisotropic string cosmology backgrounds

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    We discuss the possibility of a smooth transition from the pre- to the post-big bang regime, in the context of the lowest-order string effective action (without higher-derivative corrections), taking into account with a phenomenological model of source the repulsive gravitational effects due to the back-reaction of the quantum fluctuations outside the horizon. We determine a set of necessary conditions for a successful and realistic transition, and we find that such conditions can be satisfied (by an appropriate model of source), provided the background is higher-dimensional and anisotropic.Comment: 13 pages, latex, 2 figures included using epsfi

    Sensitivity of spherical gravitational-wave detectors to a stochastic background of non-relativistic scalar radiation

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    We analyze the signal-to-noise ratio for a relic background of scalar gravitational radiation composed of massive, non-relativistic particles, interacting with the monopole mode of two resonant spherical detectors. We find that the possible signal is enhanced with respect to the differential mode of the interferometric detectors. This enhancement is due to: {\rm (a)} the absence of the signal suppression, for non-relativistic scalars, with respect to a background of massless particles, and {\rm (b)} for flat enough spectra, a growth of the signal with the observation time faster than for a massless stochastic background.Comment: four pages, late

    Late-time effects of Planck-scale cosmology: dilatonic interpretation of the dark energy field

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    We present a model of dark energy based on the string effective action, and on the assumption that the dilaton is strongly coupled to dark matter. We discuss the main differences between this class of models and more conventional models of quintessence,uncoupled to dark matter. This paper is based on talks presented at the "VII Congresso Nazionale di Cosmologia" (Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Monte Porzio Catone, November 2002), and at the Meeting "Dark Energy Day" (University of Milano-Bicocca, November 2002). To appear in the Proc. of the International Conference on ``Thinking, Observing and Mining the Universe" (Sorrento, September 2003), eds. G. Longo and G. Miele (World Scientific, Singapore).Comment: 8 pages, latex, 4 figures included using eps

    Why supersymmetry should be restored at the TeV scale

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    It is explained why the curvature associated to the vacuum energy density arising from SUSY breaking cannot be completely transferred to the extra spatial dimensions of a bulk space-time manifold, and it is shown -- without using hierarchy arguments but only the results of current large-scale observations -- why the Tev scale should correspond to the maximal allowed SUSY-breaking scale.Comment: 6 pages. Essay written for the 2008 Awards for Essays on Gravitation (Gravity Research Foundation, USA), and awarded with "Honorable Mention

    Response of the common mode of interferometric detectors to a stochastic background of massive scalar radiation

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    We compute the angular pattern and the overlap reduction functions for the geodesic and non-geodesic response of the common mode of two interferometers interacting with a stochastic, massive scalar background. We also discuss the possible overlap between common and differential modes. We find that the cross-correlated response of two common modes to a non-relativistic background may be higher than the response of two differential modes to the same background.Comment: 8 pages, 4 figures, revte

    Relic Gravitational Waves from String Cosmology

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    A large class of string-cosmology backgrounds leads to a spectrum of relic stochastic gravitational waves, strongly tilted towards high frequencies, and characterized by two basic parameters of the cosmological model. We estimate the required sensitivity for detection of the predicted gravitational radiation and show that a region of our parameter space is within reach for some of the planned gravitational-wave detectors.Comment: 14 pages, latex, 2 figures included as epsf file

    Birth of the Universe in string cosmology

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    The decay of the string perturbative vacuum into our present cosmological state is associated to the transition from a phase of growing curvature and growing dilaton, to a phase of decreasing curvature and frozen dilaton. The possible approaches to a classical and quantum description of such a transition are introduced and briefly discussed.Comment: 17 pages, LATEX, seven figures included using EPSF, based on a talk given at the "Fourth Paris Cosmology Colloquium" (Observatoire de Paris, June 1997). To appear in the Proceedings (ed. by H. J. De Vega and N. Sanchez). An updated collection of papers on the pre-big bang scenario is available at http://www.to.infn.it/teorici/gasperin
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