44 research outputs found

    The Inhibitory Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum against Candida albicans Associated with Denture Stomatitis

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    In this study Candida speices was diagnosed in 26 swab samples from patients with denture stomatitis , investigates the antagonism activity of Lactobacillus was investigated against the yeast of Candida albicans in vitro.Results revealed that The inhibition effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria against C.albicans was examined in solid medium, L.plantarum gave higher inhibition average 11mm followed by L.acidophillus with average 9 mm and, L.fermentum , L.casei with averages 7 mm. Whereas the filtrates, the highest inhibition zone were 20 and 16 mm by L. plantarum and L.acidophillus, respectively

    A disaster-resilient multi-content optical datacenter network architecture

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    Cloud services based on datacenter networks are becoming very important. Optical networks are well suited to meet the demands set by the high volume of traffic between datacenters, given their high bandwidth and low-latency characteristics. In such networks, path protection against network failures is generally ensured by providing a backup path to the same destination, which is link-disjoint to the primary path. This protection fails to protect against disasters covering an area which disrupts both primary and backup resources. Also, content/service protection is a fundamental problem in datacenter networks, as the failure of a single datacenter should not cause the disappearance of a specific content/service from the network. Content placement, routing and protection of paths and content are closely related to one another, so the interaction among these should be studied together. In this work, we propose an integrated ILP formulation to design an optical datacenter network, which solves all the above-mentioned problems simultaneously. We show that our disaster protection scheme exploiting anycasting provides more protection, but uses less capacity, than dedicated single-link protection. We also show that a reasonable number of datacenters and selective content replicas with intelligent network design can provide survivability to disasters while supporting user demands

    Disaster-Resilient Control Plane Design and Mapping in Software-Defined Networks

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    Communication networks, such as core optical networks, heavily depend on their physical infrastructure, and hence they are vulnerable to man-made disasters, such as Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) or Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) attacks, as well as to natural disasters. Large-scale disasters may cause huge data loss and connectivity disruption in these networks. As our dependence on network services increases, the need for novel survivability methods to mitigate the effects of disasters on communication networks becomes a major concern. Software-Defined Networking (SDN), by centralizing control logic and separating it from physical equipment, facilitates network programmability and opens up new ways to design disaster-resilient networks. On the other hand, to fully exploit the potential of SDN, along with data-plane survivability, we also need to design the control plane to be resilient enough to survive network failures caused by disasters. Several distributed SDN controller architectures have been proposed to mitigate the risks of overload and failure, but they are optimized for limited faults without addressing the extent of large-scale disaster failures. For disaster resiliency of the control plane, we propose to design it as a virtual network, which can be solved using Virtual Network Mapping techniques. We select appropriate mapping of the controllers over the physical network such that the connectivity among the controllers (controller-to-controller) and between the switches to the controllers (switch-to-controllers) is not compromised by physical infrastructure failures caused by disasters. We formally model this disaster-aware control-plane design and mapping problem, and demonstrate a significant reduction in the disruption of controller-to-controller and switch-to-controller communication channels using our approach.Comment: 6 page

    A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN THE PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF SUPPORT FOR FARMERS OF THE CORN CROP IN IRAQ FOR THE YEAR 2019

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    Using the policy of price has a significant impact to developing the production of a particular crop by increasing productivity, which is eventually reflected in achieving high rates of self-sufficiency of the crops. The research objective is to identify the most important economic and social effects that will result from cancelling or reducing this subsidy Using the Cost-Benefit Analysis. The results showed that the ratio of return to cost in the case of reducing subsidies for corn farmers about 0.92%, which indicates that the one dinar invested in the cultivation of the corn under the subsidy policy achieves about 0.92 dinar, which is higher than the ratio of return to costs In the absence of this policy, that reached 0.65%. This indicates that the subsidy policy, even in reducing it, will lead to a reduction in farmers' losses by 27%. This is an incentive for the government to continue providing support to farmers to continue the production process. The study recommended that there is necessarily need to reorganize the strategy of providing support to farmers and find appropriate mechanisms for implementing the government policy to ensure that all corn farmers benefit from this support

    Dynamics of Anti-S IgG Antibodies Titers after the Second Dose of COVID-19 Vaccines in the Manual and Craft Worker Population of Qatar

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    There is limited seroepidemiological evidence on the magnitude and long-term durability of antibody titers of mRNA and non-mRNA vaccines in the Qatari population. This study was conducted to generate evidence on long-term anti-S IgG antibody titers and their dynamics in individuals who have completed a primary COVID-19 vaccination schedule. A total of 300 male participants who received any of the following vaccines BNT162b2/Comirnaty, mRNA-1273, ChAdOx1-S/Covishield, COVID-19 Vaccine Janssen/Johnson, or BBIBP-CorV or Covaxin were enrolled in our study. All sera samples were tested by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) for the quantitative determination of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the S1 subunit of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (SARS-CoV-2 N-protein IgG) were also determined. Kaplan‚ÄďMeier survival curves were used to compare the time from the last dose of the primary vaccination schedule to the time by which anti-S IgG antibody titers fell into the lowest quartile (range of values collected) for the mRNA and non-mRNA vaccines. Participants vaccinated with mRNA vaccines had higher median anti-S IgG antibody titers. Participants vaccinated with the mRNA-1273 vaccine had the highest median anti-S-antibody level of 13,720.9 AU/mL (IQR 6426.5 to 30,185.6 AU/mL) followed by BNT162b2 (median, 7570.9 AU/mL; IQR, 3757.9 to 16,577.4 AU/mL); while the median anti-S antibody titer for non-mRNA vaccinated participants was 3759.7 AU/mL (IQR, 2059.7‚Äď5693.5 AU/mL). The median time to reach the lowest quartile was 3.53 months (IQR, 2.2‚Äď4.5 months) and 7.63 months (IQR, 6.3‚Äď8.4 months) for the non-mRNA vaccine recipients and Pfizer vaccine recipients, respectively. However, more than 50% of the Moderna vaccine recipients did not reach the lowest quartile by the end of the follow-up period. This evidence on anti-S IgG antibody titers should be considered for informing decisions on the durability of the neutralizing activity and thus protection against infection after the full course of primary vaccination in individuals receiving different type (mRNA verus non-mRNA) vaccines and those with natural infection.The World Health Organization (WHO) - grant number [2021/1183356-0]

    Evaluation of appendicitis risk prediction models in adults with suspected appendicitis

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    Background Appendicitis is the most common general surgical emergency worldwide, but its diagnosis remains challenging. The aim of this study was to determine whether existing risk prediction models can reliably identify patients presenting to hospital in the UK with acute right iliac fossa (RIF) pain who are at low risk of appendicitis. Methods A systematic search was completed to identify all existing appendicitis risk prediction models. Models were validated using UK data from an international prospective cohort study that captured consecutive patients aged 16‚Äď45‚ÄČyears presenting to hospital with acute RIF in March to June 2017. The main outcome was best achievable model specificity (proportion of patients who did not have appendicitis correctly classified as low risk) whilst maintaining a failure rate below 5 per cent (proportion of patients identified as low risk who actually had appendicitis). Results Some 5345 patients across 154 UK hospitals were identified, of which two‚Äźthirds (3613 of 5345, 67¬∑6 per cent) were women. Women were more than twice as likely to undergo surgery with removal of a histologically normal appendix (272 of 964, 28¬∑2 per cent) than men (120 of 993, 12¬∑1 per cent) (relative risk 2¬∑33, 95 per cent c.i. 1¬∑92 to 2¬∑84; P‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0¬∑001). Of 15 validated risk prediction models, the Adult Appendicitis Score performed best (cut‚Äźoff score 8 or less, specificity 63¬∑1 per cent, failure rate 3¬∑7 per cent). The Appendicitis Inflammatory Response Score performed best for men (cut‚Äźoff score 2 or less, specificity 24¬∑7 per cent, failure rate 2¬∑4 per cent). Conclusion Women in the UK had a disproportionate risk of admission without surgical intervention and had high rates of normal appendicectomy. Risk prediction models to support shared decision‚Äźmaking by identifying adults in the UK at low risk of appendicitis were identified

    Mortality from gastrointestinal congenital anomalies at 264 hospitals in 74 low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries: a multicentre, international, prospective cohort study

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    Summary Background Congenital anomalies are the fifth leading cause of mortality in children younger than 5 years globally. Many gastrointestinal congenital anomalies are fatal without timely access to neonatal surgical care, but few studies have been done on these conditions in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). We compared outcomes of the seven most common gastrointestinal congenital anomalies in low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries globally, and identified factors associated with mortality. Methods We did a multicentre, international prospective cohort study of patients younger than 16 years, presenting to hospital for the first time with oesophageal atresia, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, intestinal atresia, gastroschisis, exomphalos, anorectal malformation, and Hirschsprung‚Äôs disease. Recruitment was of consecutive patients for a minimum of 1 month between October, 2018, and April, 2019. We collected data on patient demographics, clinical status, interventions, and outcomes using the REDCap platform. Patients were followed up for 30 days after primary intervention, or 30 days after admission if they did not receive an intervention. The primary outcome was all-cause, in-hospital mortality for all conditions combined and each condition individually, stratified by country income status. We did a complete case analysis. Findings We included 3849 patients with 3975 study conditions (560 with oesophageal atresia, 448 with congenital diaphragmatic hernia, 681 with intestinal atresia, 453 with gastroschisis, 325 with exomphalos, 991 with anorectal malformation, and 517 with Hirschsprung‚Äôs disease) from 264 hospitals (89 in high-income countries, 166 in middleincome countries, and nine in low-income countries) in 74 countries. Of the 3849 patients, 2231 (58¬∑0%) were male. Median gestational age at birth was 38 weeks (IQR 36‚Äď39) and median bodyweight at presentation was 2¬∑8 kg (2¬∑3‚Äď3¬∑3). Mortality among all patients was 37 (39¬∑8%) of 93 in low-income countries, 583 (20¬∑4%) of 2860 in middle-income countries, and 50 (5¬∑6%) of 896 in high-income countries (p<0¬∑0001 between all country income groups). Gastroschisis had the greatest difference in mortality between country income strata (nine [90¬∑0%] of ten in lowincome countries, 97 [31¬∑9%] of 304 in middle-income countries, and two [1¬∑4%] of 139 in high-income countries; p‚ȧ0¬∑0001 between all country income groups). Factors significantly associated with higher mortality for all patients combined included country income status (low-income vs high-income countries, risk ratio 2¬∑78 [95% CI 1¬∑88‚Äď4¬∑11], p<0¬∑0001; middle-income vs high-income countries, 2¬∑11 [1¬∑59‚Äď2¬∑79], p<0¬∑0001), sepsis at presentation (1¬∑20 [1¬∑04‚Äď1¬∑40], p=0¬∑016), higher American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score at primary intervention (ASA 4‚Äď5 vs ASA 1‚Äď2, 1¬∑82 [1¬∑40‚Äď2¬∑35], p<0¬∑0001; ASA 3 vs ASA 1‚Äď2, 1¬∑58, [1¬∑30‚Äď1¬∑92], p<0¬∑0001]), surgical safety checklist not used (1¬∑39 [1¬∑02‚Äď1¬∑90], p=0¬∑035), and ventilation or parenteral nutrition unavailable when needed (ventilation 1¬∑96, [1¬∑41‚Äď2¬∑71], p=0¬∑0001; parenteral nutrition 1¬∑35, [1¬∑05‚Äď1¬∑74], p=0¬∑018). Administration of parenteral nutrition (0¬∑61, [0¬∑47‚Äď0¬∑79], p=0¬∑0002) and use of a peripherally inserted central catheter (0¬∑65 [0¬∑50‚Äď0¬∑86], p=0¬∑0024) or percutaneous central line (0¬∑69 [0¬∑48‚Äď1¬∑00], p=0¬∑049) were associated with lower mortality. Interpretation Unacceptable differences in mortality exist for gastrointestinal congenital anomalies between lowincome, middle-income, and high-income countries. Improving access to quality neonatal surgical care in LMICs will be vital to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 of ending preventable deaths in neonates and children younger than 5 years by 2030
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