1,195 research outputs found

### Nonlinear effects for Bose Einstein condensates in optical lattices

We present our experimental investigations on the subject of dynamical
nonlinearity-induced instabilities and of nonlinear Landau-Zener tunneling
between two energy bands in a Rubidium Bose-Einstein condensate in an
accelerated periodic potential. These two effects may be considered two
different regimes (for small and large acceleration) of the same physical
system and studied with the same experimental protocol. Nonlinearity introduces
an asymmetry in Landau-Zener tunneling; as a result, tunneling from the ground
state to the excited state is enhanced whereas in the opposite direction it is
suppressed. When the acceleration is lowered, the condensate exhibits an
unstable behaviour due to nonlinearity. We also carried out a full numerical
simulation of both regimes integrating the full Gross-Pitaevskii equation; for
the Landau-Zener effect we also used a simple two-level model. In both cases we
found good agreement with the experimental results.Comment: 9 pages, 7 figures. Submitted to Laser Physic

### Testing Cosmological Models With A \lya Forest Statistic: The High End Of The Optical Depth Distribution

We pay particular attention to the high end of the \lya optical depth
distribution of a quasar spectrum. Based on the flux distribution
(Miralda-Escud\'e et al 1996), a simple yet seemingly cosmological model
-differentiating statistic, $\Delta_{\tau_0}$ -- the cumulative probability of
a quasar spectrum with \lya optical depth greater than a high value $\tau_0$
-- is emphasized. It is shown that two different models -- the cold dark matter
model with a cosmological constant and the mixed hot and cold dark matter
model, both normalized to COBE and local galaxy cluster abundance -- yield
quite different values of $\Delta_{\tau_0}$: 0.13 of the former versus 0.058 of
the latter for $\tau_0=3.0$ at $z=3$. Moreover, it is argued that
$\Delta_{\tau_0}$ may be fairly robust to compute theoretically because it does
not seem to depend sensitively on small variations of simulations parameters
such as radiation field, cooling, feedback process, radiative transfer,
resolution and simulation volume within the plausible ranges of the concerned
quantities. Furthermore, it is illustrated that $\Delta_{\tau_0}$ can be
obtained sufficiently accurately from currently available observed quasar
spectra for $\tau_0\sim 3.0-4.0$, when observational noise is properly taken
into account. We anticipate that analyses of observations of quasar \lya
absorption spectra over a range of redshift may be able to constrain the
redshift evolution of the amplitude of the density fluctuations on
small-to-intermediate scales, therefore providing an independent constraint on
$\Omega_0$, $\Omega_{0,HDM}$ and $\Lambda_0$.Comment: ApJ Letters, in press, substantial changes have been made from the
last versio

### The power spectrum of the flux distribution in the Lyman-alpha forest of a Large sample of UVES QSO Absorption Spectra (LUQAS)

The flux power spectra of the Lyman-alpha forest from a sample of 27 QSOs
taken with the high resolution echelle spectrograph UVES on VLT are presented.
We find a similar fluctuation amplitude at the peak of the ``3D'' flux power
spectrum at k ~ 0.03 (km/sec)^(-1) as the study by Croft et al. (2002), in the
same redshift range. The amplitude of the flux power spectrum increases with
decreasing redshift if corrected for the increase in the mean flux level as
expected if the evolution of the flux power spectrum is sensitive to the
gravitational growth of matter density fluctuations. This is in agreement with
the findings of McDonald et al. (2000) at larger redshift. The logarithmic
slope of the "3D" flux power spectrum, P_F(k), at large scales k < 0.03
(km/sec)^(-1), is 1.4 +- 0.3, i.e. 0.3 shallower than that found by Croft et
al. (2002) but consistent within the errors.Comment: 18 pages, 9 PS figures, 6 tables. Note that the k-values of the 1D
flux power spectrum had been erroneously shifted by half a bin size (in log
k) in the previous version. All the other results are unaffected. New tables
can be found at http://www.ast.cam.ac.uk/~rtnigm/luqas.ht

### Dynamics and phase evolution of Bose-Einstein condensates in one-dimensional optical lattices

We report experimental results on the dynamics and phase evolution of
Bose-Einstein condensates in 1D optical lattices. The dynamical behaviour is
studied by adiabatically loading the condensate into the lattice and
subsequently switching off the magnetic trap. In this case, the condensate is
free to expand inside the periodic structure of the optical lattice. The phase
evolution of the condensate, on the other hand, can be studied by
non-adiabatically switching on the periodic potential. We observe decays and
revivals of the interference pattern after a time-of-flight.Comment: 6 pages, 5 figures; submitted to the Proceedings of the 11th Laser
Physics Workshop, Bratislava 200

### Localization of Two-Component Bose-Einstein Condensates in Optical Lattices

We reveal underlying principles of nonlinear localization of a two-component
Bose-Einstein condensate loaded into a one-dimensional optical lattice. Our
theory shows that spin-dependent optical lattices can be used to manipulate
both the type and magnitude of nonlinear interaction between the ultracold
atomic species and to observe nontrivial two-componentnlocalized states of a
condensate in both bands and gaps of the matter-wave band-gap structure.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

### Instabilities of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a periodic potential: an experimental investigation

By accelerating a Bose-Einstein condensate in a controlled way across the
edge of the Brillouin zone of a 1D optical lattice, we investigate the
stability of the condensate in the vicinity of the zone edge. Through an
analysis of the visibility of the interference pattern after a time-of-flight
and the widths of the interference peaks, we characterize the onset of
instability as the acceleration of the lattice is decreased. We briefly discuss
the significance of our results with respect to recent theoretical work.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figures; submitted to Optics Express (Focus Issue on Cold
Atomic Gases in Optical Lattices

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