1,497 research outputs found

### Fundamental Approach to the Cosmological Constant Issue

The issue of the cosmological constant is discussed in details and a solution
to the problem is suggested.Comment: 13 pages in LaTeX with 3 figures in eps files, paper presented at the
Fifth Friedmann Seminar; the cls file necessary for successful PostScript
generation is also attache

### Spheroidal and elliptical galaxy radial velocity dispersion determined from Cosmological General Relativity

Radial velocity dispersion in spheroidal and elliptical galaxies, as a
function of radial distance from the center of the galaxy, has been derived
from Cosmological Special Relativity. For velocity dispersions in the outer
regions of spherical galaxies, the dynamical mass calculated for a galaxy using
Carmelian theory may be 10 to 100 times less than that calculated from standard
Newtonian physics. This means there is no need to include halo dark matter. The
velocity dispersion is found to be approximately constant across the galaxy
after falling from an initial high value at the center.Comment: 10 pages, 3 figure

### Particle Pair Production in Cosmological General Relativity

The Cosmological General Relativity (CGR) of Carmeli, a 5-dimensional (5-D)
theory of time, space and velocity, predicts the existence of an acceleration
a_0 = c / tau due to the expansion of the universe, where c is the speed of
light in vacuum, tau = 1 / h is the Hubble-Carmeli time constant, where h is
the Hubble constant at zero distance and no gravity.
The Carmeli force on a particle of mass m is F_c = m a_0, a fifth force in
nature.
In CGR, the effective mass density rho_eff = rho - rho_c, where rho is the
matter density and rho_c is the critical mass density which we identify with
the vacuum mass density rho_vac = -rho_c.
The fields resulting from the weak field solution of the Einstein field
equations in 5-D CGR and the Carmeli force are used to hypothesize the
production of a pair of particles.
The mass of each particle is found to be m = tau c^3 / 4 G, where G is
Newton's constant.
The vacuum mass density derived from the physics is rho_vac = -rho_c = -3 /
(8 pi G tau^2).
The cosmic microwave background (CMB) black body radiation at the temperature
T_o = 2.72548 K which fills that volume is found to have a relationship to the
ionization energy of the Hydrogen atom. Define the radiation energy
epsilon_gamma = (1 - g) m c^2 / N_gamma, where (1-g) is the fraction of the
initial energy m c^2 which converts to photons, g is a function of the baryon
density parameter Omega_b and N_gamma is the total number of photons in the CMB
radiation field. We make the connection with the ionization energy of the first
quantum level of the Hydrogen atom by the hypothesis epsilon_gamma = [(1 - g) m
c^2] / N_gamma = alpha^2 mu c^2 / 2, where alpha is the fine-structure constant
and mu = m_p f / (1 + f), where f= m_e / m_p with m_e the electron mass and m_p
the proton mass.Comment: 14 pages, 0 figures. The final publication is available at
springerlink.co

### Cosmological Relativity: A General-Relativistic Theory for the Accelerating Expanding Universe

Recent observations of distant supernovae imply, in defiance of expectations,
that the universe growth is accelerating, contrary to what has always been
assumed that the expansion is slowing down due to gravity. In this paper a
general-relativistic cosmological theory that gives a direct relationship
between distances and redshifts in an expanding universe is presented. The
theory is actually a generalization of Hubble's law taking gravity into account
by means of Einstein's theory of general relativity. The theory predicts that
the universe can have three phases of expansion, decelerating, constant and
accelerating, but it is shown that at present the first two cases are excluded,
although in the past it had experienced them. Our theory shows that the
universe now is definitely in the stage of accelerating expansion, confirming
the recent experimental results

### Covariant Irreducible Parametrization of Electromagnetic Fields in Arbitrary Spacetime

We present a new unified covariant description of electromagnetic field
properties for an arbitrary space-time. We derive a complete set of irreducible
components describing a six-dimensional electromagnetic field from the Maxwell
and metric tensors using the symmetry group SL(2,C). For the special case of a
flat space-time metric the components are shown to correspond to the scalar
invariants of the electromagnetic field, the energy-momentum-stress tensor and
in addition, three new tensors expressing physical observables of rank two and
four, respectively. We make a physical interpretation of one of the new rank
two tensors as describing a classical intrinsic spin of the electromagnetic
field.Comment: 11 pages, no figures, Will appear in J. Math. Phys., January (2006

### Carmeli's accelerating universe is spatially flat without dark matter

Carmeli's 5D brane cosmology has been applied to the expanding accelerating
universe and it has been found that the distance redshift relation will fit the
data of the high-z supernova teams without the need for dark matter. Also the
vacuum energy contribution to gravity indicates that the universe is
asymptotically expanding towards a spatially flat state, where the total
mass/energy density tends to unity.Comment: 4 pages, 5 figures, accepted for publication in Int. J. Theor.
Physics, this paper is based on an invited talk at FFP6, Udine, Italy, Sept
200

### Finite bounded expanding white hole universe without dark matter

The solution of Einstein's field equations in Cosmological General Relativity
(CGR), where the Galaxy is at the center of a finite yet bounded spherically
symmetrical isotropic gravitational field, is identical with the unbounded
solution. This leads to the conclusion that the Universe may be viewed as a
finite expanding white hole. The fact that CGR has been successful in
describing the distance modulus verses redshift data of the high-redshift type
Ia supernovae means that the data cannot distinguish between unbounded models
and those with finite bounded radii of at least $c \tau$. Also it is shown that
the Universe is spatially flat at the current epoch and has been at all past
epochs where it was matter dominated.Comment: 11 pages, revised versio

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