203 research outputs found

    Quantitative information flow under generic leakage functions and adaptive adversaries

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    We put forward a model of action-based randomization mechanisms to analyse quantitative information flow (QIF) under generic leakage functions, and under possibly adaptive adversaries. This model subsumes many of the QIF models proposed so far. Our main contributions include the following: (1) we identify mild general conditions on the leakage function under which it is possible to derive general and significant results on adaptive QIF; (2) we contrast the efficiency of adaptive and non-adaptive strategies, showing that the latter are as efficient as the former in terms of length up to an expansion factor bounded by the number of available actions; (3) we show that the maximum information leakage over strategies, given a finite time horizon, can be expressed in terms of a Bellman equation. This can be used to compute an optimal finite strategy recursively, by resorting to standard methods like backward induction.Comment: Revised and extended version of conference paper with the same title appeared in Proc. of FORTE 2014, LNC

    Quantitative information flow, with a view

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    We put forward a general model intended for assessment of system security against passive eavesdroppers, both quantitatively ( how much information is leaked) and qualitatively ( what properties are leaked). To this purpose, we extend information hiding systems ( ihs ), a model where the secret-observable relation is represented as a noisy channel, with views : basically, partitions of the state-space. Given a view W and n independent observations of the system, one is interested in the probability that a Bayesian adversary wrongly predicts the class of W the underlying secret belongs to. We offer results that allow one to easily characterise the behaviour of this error probability as a function of the number of observations, in terms of the channel matrices defining the ihs and the view W . In particular, we provide expressions for the limit value as n → ∞, show by tight bounds that convergence is exponential, and also characterise the rate of convergence to predefined error thresholds. We then show a few instances of statistical attacks that can be assessed by a direct application of our model: attacks against modular exponentiation that exploit timing leaks, against anonymity in mix-nets and against privacy in sparse datasets

    Output sampling for output diversity in automatic unit test generation

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    Diverse test sets are able to expose bugs that test sets generated with structural coverage techniques cannot discover. Input-diverse test set generators have been shown to be effective for this, but also have limitations: e.g., they need to be complemented with semantic information derived from the Software Under Test. We demonstrate how to drive the test set generation process with semantic information in the form of output diversity. We present the first totally automatic output sampling for output diversity unit test set generation tool, called OutGen. OutGen transforms a program into an SMT formula in bit-vector arithmetic. It then applies universal hashing in order to generate an output-based diverse set of inputs. The result offers significant diversity improvements when measured as a high output uniqueness count. It achieves this by ensuring that the test set’s output probability distribution is uniform, i.e. highly diverse. The use of output sampling, as opposed to any of input sampling, CBMC, CAVM, behaviour diversity or random testing improves mutation score and bug detection by up to 4150% and 963% respectively on programs drawn from three different corpora: the R-project, SIR and CodeFlaws. OutGen test sets achieve an average mutation score of up to 92%, and 70% of the test sets detect the defect. Moreover, OutGen is the only automatic unit test generation tool that is able to detect bugs on the real number C functions from the R-project

    Relative privacy threats and learning from anonymized data

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    Squeeziness: An information theoretic measure for avoiding fault masking

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    Copyright @ 2012 ElsevierFault masking can reduce the effectiveness of a test suite. We propose an information theoretic measure, Squeeziness, as the theoretical basis for avoiding fault masking. We begin by explaining fault masking and the relationship between collisions and fault masking. We then define Squeeziness and demonstrate by experiment that there is a strong correlation between Squeeziness and the likelihood of collisions. We conclude with comments on how Squeeziness could be the foundation for generating test suites that minimise the likelihood of fault masking

    CaSPiS: A Calculus of Sessions, Pipelines and Services

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    Service-oriented computing is calling for novel computational models and languages with well disciplined primitives for client-server interaction, structured orchestration and unexpected events handling. We present CaSPiS, a process calculus where the conceptual abstractions of sessioning and pipelining play a central role for modelling service-oriented systems. CaSPiS sessions are two-sided, uniquely named and can be nested. CaSPiS pipelines permit orchestrating the flow of data produced by different sessions. The calculus is also equipped with operators for handling (unexpected) termination of the partner's side of a session. Several examples are presented to provide evidence of the flexibility of the chosen set of primitives. One key contribution is a fully abstract encoding of Misra et al.'s orchestration language Orc. Another main result shows that in CaSPiS it is possible to program a graceful termination of nested sessions, which guarantees that no session is forced to hang forever after the loss of its partner

    Implementing Session Centered Calculi

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    Recently, specific attention has been devoted to the development of service oriented process calculi. Besides the foundational aspects, it is also interesting to have prototype implementations for them in order to assess usability and to minimize the gap between theory and practice. Typically, these implementations are done in Java taking advantage of its mechanisms supporting network applications. However, most of the recurrent features of service oriented applications are re-implemented from scratch. In this paper we show how to implement a service oriented calculus, CaSPiS (Calculus of Services with Pipelines and Sessions) using the Java framework IMC, where recurrent mechanisms for network applications are already provided. By using the session oriented and pattern matching communication mechanisms provided by IMC, it is relatively simple to implement in Java all CaSPiS abstractions and thus to easily write the implementation in Java of a CaSPiS process

    Compositionality Results for Quantitative Information Flow

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    International audienceIn the min-entropy approach to quantitative information flow, the leakage is defined in terms of a minimization problem, which, in case of large systems, can be computationally rather heavy. The same happens for the recently proposed generalization called g-vulnerability. In this paper we study the case in which the channel associated to the system can be decomposed into simpler channels, which typically happens when the observables consist of several components. Our main contribution is the derivation of bounds on the g-leakage of the whole system in terms of the g-leakage of its components

    Network-aware Evaluation Environment for Reputation Systems

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    Parties of reputation systems rate each other and use ratings to compute reputation scores that drive their interactions. When deciding which reputation model to deploy in a network environment, it is important to find the most suitable model and to determine its right initial configuration. This calls for an engineering approach for describing, implementing and evaluating reputation systems while taking into account specific aspects of both the reputation systems and the networked environment where they will run. We present a software tool (NEVER) for network-aware evaluation of reputation systems and their rapid prototyping through experiments performed according to user-specified parameters. To demonstrate effectiveness of NEVER, we analyse reputation models based on the beta distribution and the maximum likelihood estimation

    The complexity of asynchronous model based testing

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    This is the post-print version of the final paper published in Theoretical Computer Science. The published article is available from the link below. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. Copyright @ 2012 Elsevier B.V.In model based testing (MBT), testing is based on a model MM that typically is expressed using a state-based language such as an input output transition system (IOTS). Most approaches to MBT assume that communications between the system under test (SUT) and its environment are synchronous. However, many systems interact with their environment through asynchronous channels and the presence of such channels changes the nature of testing. In this paper we investigate the situation in which the SUT interacts with its environment through asynchronous channels and the problems of producing test cases to reach a state, execute a transition, or to distinguish two states. In addition, we investigate the Oracle Problem. All four problems are explored for both FIFO and non-FIFO channels. It is known that the Oracle Problem can be solved in polynomial time for FIFO channels but we also show that the three test case generation problems can also be solved in polynomial time in the case where the IOTS is observable but the general test generation problems are EXPTIME-hard. For non-FIFO channels we prove that all of the test case generation problems are EXPTIME-hard and the Oracle Problem in NP-hard, even if we restrict attention to deterministic IOTSs