6,063 research outputs found

    The ATLAS muon micromegas R&D project: towards large-size chambers for the s-LHC

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    Detectors based on the bulk-Micromegas technology exhibit position resolution better than 100 m m at counting rates of up to several tens of kHz/cm(2), along with trigger capabilities. These characteristics, combined with the detector's mechanical robustness and the possibility for cost-effective industrial production, makes them a promising candidate for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer upgrade in a future luminosity enhancement of the LHC. The R&D project status will be presented together with the obtained results in the effort to define the baseline system specifications

    Ageing test of the ATLAS RPCs at X5-GIF

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    An ageing test of three ATLAS production RPC stations is in course at X5-GIF, the CERN irradiation facility. The chamber efficiencies are monitored using cosmic rays triggered by a scintillator hodoscope. Higher statistics measurements are made when the X5 muon beam is available. We report here the measurements of the efficiency versus operating voltage at different source intensities, up to a maximum counting rate of about 700Hz/cm^2. We describe the performance of the chambers during the test up to an overall ageing of 4 ATLAS equivalent years corresponding to an integrated charge of 0.12C/cm^2, including a safety factor of 5.Comment: 4 pages. Presented at the VII Workshop on Resistive Plate Chambers and Related Detectors; Clermont-Ferrand October 20th-22nd, 200

    LH supplementation of ovarian stimulation protocols influences follicular fluid steroid composition contributing to the improvement of ovarian response in poor responder women.

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    Abstract In this prospective study, we evaluated the steroid levels in 111 follicular fluids (FF) collected from 13 women stimulated with FSH monotherapy and 205 FF collected from 28 women stimulated with FSH‚ÄČ+‚ÄČLH because of a previous history of hypo-responsiveness to FSH. Steroid levels were measured by HPLC/MS‚ÄďMS and related to ovarian stimulation protocol, oocyte maturity, fertilization and quality of blastocysts, after individually tracking the fate of all retrieved oocytes. 17-Hydroxy-Progesterone, Androstenedione, Estradiol and Estrone were significantly higher in the FSH‚ÄČ+‚ÄČLH protocol. Progesterone, 17-Hydroxy-Progesterone and Estradiol were more expressed in FF yielding a mature oocyte (p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.01) in the FSH‚ÄČ+‚ÄČLH protocol. FF Progesterone concentration was correlated with the rate of normal fertilization in the FSH protocol. None of the FF steroids measured were associated with blastocyst quality and achievement of pregnancy. Our results indicate that LH supplementation in hypo-responsive women modifies ovarian steroid production, mimicking physiological production better and likely contributing to an improved ovarian response. Employing a correct methodological procedure to evaluate the relationship between FF steroid hormones and assisted reproduction outcomes, our study reveals that some steroids in single follicles may be helpful in predicting oocyte maturity and fertilization

    APHRODITE criteria:addressing male patients with hypogonadism and/or infertility owing to altered idiopathic testicular function

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    Research question: Can a novel classification system of the infertile male - 'APHRODITE' (Addressing male Patients with Hypogonadism and/or infeRtility Owing to altereD, Idiopathic TEsticular function) - stratify different subgroups of male infertility to help scientists to design clinical trials on the hormonal treatment of male infertility, and clinicians to counsel and treat the endocrinological imbalances in men and, ultimately, increase the chances of natural and assisted conception?Design: A collaboration between andrologists, reproductive urologists and gynaecologists, with specialization in reproductive medicine and expertise in male infertility, led to the development of the APHRODITE criteria through an iterative consensus process based on clinical patient descriptions and the results of routine laboratory tests, including semen analysis and hormonal testing.Results: Five patient groups were delineated according to the APHRODITE criteria; (1) Hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (acquired and congenital); (2) Idiopathic male infertility with lowered semen analysis parameters, normal serum FSH and normal serum total testosterone concentrations; (3) A hypogonadal state with lowered semen analysis parameters, normal FSH and reduced total testosterone concentrations; (4) Lowered semen analysis parameters, elevated FSH concentrations and reduced or normal total testosterone concentrations; and (5) Unexplained male infertility in the context of unexplained couple infertility.Conclusion: The APHRODITE criteria offer a novel and standardized patient stratification system for male infertility independent of aetiology and/or altered spermatogenesis, facilitating communication among clinicians, researchers and patients to improve reproductive outcomes following hormonal therapy. APHRODITE is proposed as a basis for future trials of the hormonal treatment of male infertility.</p

    Recombinant human luteinizing hormone co-treatment in ovarian stimulation for assisted reproductive technology in women of advanced reproductive age: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

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    Introduction: Several studies suggest that luteinizing hormone (LH) could improve IVF outcome in women of advanced reproductive age by optimizing androgen production. In this review, we assessed the role of recombinant-human LH (r-hLH) and recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (r-hFSH) co-treatment in ovarian stimulation for assisted reproductive technology in women of advanced reproductive age candidates for assisted reproduction. Material and methods: Using a preregistered protocol we systematically searched Medline/PubMed, Scopus and the ISI Web of Science databases to identify randomized controlled trials in which r-hFSH monotherapy protocols were compared with r-hFSH/r-hLH co-treatment in women ‚Č•35 years undergoing fresh IVF cycles. We calculated the pooled odds ratio (OR) for dichotomous data and the weight mean difference (WMD) for continuous data with an associated 95% confidence interval (CI). The meta-analyses were conducted using the random-effect model. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Subgroup analyses of all primary and secondary outcomes were performed only in women aged 35‚Äď40 years. Results: Twelve studies were identified. In women aged between 35 and 40 years, r-hFSH/r-hLH co-treatment was associated with higher clinical pregnancy rates (OR 1.45, CI 95% 1.05‚Äď2.00, I2 = 0%, P = 0.03) and implantation rates (OR 1.49, CI 95% 1.10‚Äď2.01, I2¬†= 13%, P = 0.01) versus r-hFSH monotherapy. Fewer oocytes were retrieved in r-hFSH/r-hLH-treated patients than in r-hFSH-treated patients both in women aged ‚Č•35 years (WMD -0.82 CI 95% -1.40 to ‚ąí 0.24, I2 = 88%, P = 0.005) and in those aged between 35 and 40 years (WMD -1.03, CI ‚ąí 1.89 to ‚ąí 0.17, I2 = 0%, P = 0.02). The number of metaphase II oocytes, miscarriage rates and live birth rates did not differ between the two groups of women overall or in subgroup analysis. Conclusion: Although more oocytes were retrieved in patients who underwent r-hFSH monotherapy, this meta-analysis suggests that r-hFSH/r-hLH co-treatment improves clinical pregnancy and implantation rates in women between 35 and 40 years of age undergoing ovarian stimulation for assisted reproduction technology. However, more RCTs using narrower age ranges in advanced age women are warranted to corroborate these findings

    Sexual Intercourse for Induction of Spontaneous Onset of Labor: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

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    INTRODUCTION: Sexual intercourse during pregnancy is commonly believed to trigger the onset of contractions and, therefore, labor. However, in low-risk pregnancies, there is neither association with preterm birth, premature rupture of membranes, or low birth weight, nor with spontaneous onset of labor at term. AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of sexual intercourse for spontaneous onset of labor at term in singleton pregnancies. METHODS: The systematic search was conducted using electronic databases from inception of each database to June 2019. Review of articles also included the abstracts of all references retrieved from the search. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials comparing sexual intercourse in singleton low-risk pregnancies at term with controls (either reduced number of coitus or no coitus) for spontaneous onset of labor. Estimates were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the incidence of spontaneous onset of labor. The summary measures were reported as summary relative risk with 95% CI using the random-effects model of DerSimonian and Laird. RESULTS: Data extracted from 3 trials, including 1,483 women with singleton pregnancy at term and cephalic presentation, were analyzed. Women who were randomized in the sexual intercourse group had similar incidence of spontaneous onset of labor compared with control subjects (0.82% vs 0.80%; relative risk 1.02, 95% CI 0.98-1.07). CLINICAL IMPLICATION: Sexual intercourse should not be restricted in low-risk term pregnancies. Further studies are needed to properly evaluate the impact of orgasm, penetration, condom use, frequency of intercourse and other factors on induction of labor at term. STRENGTH & LIMITATIONS: Our study has several strengths. The three included trials had low risk of allocation bias; intention-to-treat analysis was used; this is the first meta-analysis on this issue so far. Limitations mainly depend on the design of the included studies. Firstly, compliance to the protocol relied on self-reporting by patients; in addition, not all the features of sexual intercourse could be adequately assessed (orgasm, nipple stimulation, sexual positions, etc.). CONCLUSION: In women with singleton, cephalic, low-risk pregnancies, sexual intercourse at term does not significantly increase the incidence of spontaneous onset of labor
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