1,536 research outputs found

    Optimum unambiguous discrimination of two mixed quantum states

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    We investigate generalized measurements, based on positive-operator-valued measures, and von Neumann measurements for the unambiguous discrimination of two mixed quantum states that occur with given prior probabilities. In particular, we derive the conditions under which the failure probability of the measurement can reach its absolute lower bound, proportional to the fidelity of the states. The optimum measurement strategy yielding the fidelity bound of the failure probability is explicitly determined for a number of cases. One example involves two density operators of rank d that jointly span a 2d-dimensional Hilbert space and are related in a special way. We also present an application of the results to the problem of unambiguous quantum state comparison, generalizing the optimum strategy for arbitrary prior probabilities of the states.Comment: final versio

    Optimal unambiguous filtering of a quantum state: An instance in mixed state discrimination

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    Deterministic discrimination of nonorthogonal states is forbidden by quantum measurement theory. However, if we do not want to succeed all the time, i.e. allow for inconclusive outcomes to occur, then unambiguous discrimination becomes possible with a certain probability of success. A variant of the problem is set discrimination: the states are grouped in sets and we want to determine to which particular set a given pure input state belongs. We consider here the simplest case, termed quantum state filtering, when the NN given non-orthogonal states, {ψ1>,...,ψN>}\{|\psi_{1} >,..., |\psi_{N} > \}, are divided into two sets and the first set consists of one state only while the second consists of all of the remaining states. We present the derivation of the optimal measurement strategy, in terms of a generalized measurement (POVM), to distinguish ψ1>|\psi_1> from the set {ψ2>,...,ψN>}\{|\psi_2 >,...,|\psi_N > \} and the corresponding optimal success and failure probabilities. The results, but not the complete derivation, were presented previously [\prl {\bf 90}, 257901 (2003)] as the emphasis there was on appplication of the results to novel probabilistic quantum algorithms. We also show that the problem is equivalent to the discrimination of a pure state and an arbitrary mixed state.Comment: 8 page

    Optimum measurement for unambiguously discriminating two mixed states: General considerations and special cases

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    Based on our previous publication [U. Herzog and J. A. Bergou, Phys.Rev. A 71, 050301(R) (2005)] we investigate the optimum measurement for the unambiguous discrimination of two mixed quantum states that occur with given prior probabilities. Unambiguous discrimination of nonorthogonal states is possible in a probabilistic way, at the expense of a nonzero probability of inconclusive results, where the measurement fails. Along with a discussion of the general problem, we give an example illustrating our method of solution. We also provide general inequalities for the minimum achievable failure probability and discuss in more detail the necessary conditions that must be fulfilled when its absolute lower bound, proportional to the fidelity of the states, can be reached.Comment: Submitted to Journal of Physics:Conference Series (Proceedings of the 12th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics, Ankara, June 2005

    Optical realization of optimal unambiguous discrimination for pure and mixed quantum states

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    Quantum mechanics forbids deterministic discrimination among non-orthogonal states. Nonetheless, the capability to distinguish nonorthogonal states unambiguously is an important primitive in quantum information processing. In this work, we experimentally implement generalized measurements in an optical system and demonstrate the first optimal unambiguous discrimination between three nonorthogonal states, with a success rate of 55%, to be compared with the 25% maximum achievable using projective measurements. Furthermore we present the first realization of unambiguous discrimination between a pure state and a nonorthogonal mixed state.Comment: Some minor revision

    Minimal optimal generalized quantum measurements

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    Optimal and finite positive operator valued measurements on a finite number NN of identically prepared systems have been presented recently. With physical realization in mind we propose here optimal and minimal generalized quantum measurements for two-level systems. We explicitly construct them up to N=7 and verify that they are minimal up to N=5. We finally propose an expression which gives the size of the minimal optimal measurements for arbitrary NN.Comment: 9 pages, Late

    Maximum-confidence discrimination among symmetric qudit states

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    We study the maximum-confidence (MC) measurement strategy for discriminating among nonorthogonal symmetric qudit states. Restricting to linearly dependent and equally likely pure states, we find the optimal positive operator valued measure (POVM) that maximizes our confidence in identifying each state in the set and minimizes the probability of obtaining inconclusive results. The physical realization of this POVM is completely determined and it is shown that after an inconclusive outcome, the input states may be mapped into a new set of equiprobable symmetric states, restricted, however, to a subspace of the original qudit Hilbert space. By applying the MC measurement again onto this new set, we can still gain some information about the input states, although with less confidence than before. This leads us to introduce the concept of "sequential maximum-confidence" (SMC) measurements, where the optimized MC strategy is iterated in as many stages as allowed by the input set, until no further information can be extracted from an inconclusive result. Within each stage of this measurement our confidence in identifying the input states is the highest possible, although it decreases from one stage to the next. In addition, the more stages we accomplish within the maximum allowed, the higher will be the probability of correct identification. We will discuss an explicit example of the optimal SMC measurement applied in the discrimination among four symmetric qutrit states and propose an optical network to implement it.Comment: 14 pages, 4 figures. Published versio

    Minimum-error discrimination between three mirror-symmetric states

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    We present the optimal measurement strategy for distinguishing between three quantum states exhibiting a mirror symmetry. The three states live in a two-dimensional Hilbert space, and are thus overcomplete. By mirror symmetry we understand that the transformation {|+> -> |+>, |-> -> -|->} leaves the set of states invariant. The obtained measurement strategy minimizes the error probability. An experimental realization for polarized photons, realizable with current technology, is suggested.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figure

    On Interferometric Duality in Multibeam Experiments

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    We critically analyze the problem of formulating duality between fringe visibility and which-way information, in multibeam interference experiments. We show that the traditional notion of visibility is incompatible with any intuitive idea of complementarity, but for the two-beam case. We derive a number of new inequalities, not present in the two-beam case, one of them coinciding with a recently proposed multibeam generalization of the inequality found by Greenberger and YaSin. We show, by an explicit procedure of optimization in a three-beam case, that suggested generalizations of Englert's inequality, do not convey, differently from the two-beam case, the idea of complementarity, according to which an increase of visibility is at the cost of a loss in path information, and viceversa.Comment: 26 pages, 1 figure, substantial changes in the text, new material has been added in Section 3. Version to appear in J.Phys.

    A two-qubit Bell inequality for which POVM measurements are relevant

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    A bipartite Bell inequality is derived which is maximally violated on the two-qubit state space if measurements describable by positive operator valued measure (POVM) elements are allowed rather than restricting the possible measurements to projective ones. In particular, the presented Bell inequality requires POVMs in order to be maximally violated by a maximally entangled two-qubit state. This answers a question raised by N. Gisin.Comment: 7 pages, 1 figur

    Kochen-Specker theorem for a single qubit using positive operator-valued measures

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    A proof of the Kochen-Specker theorem for a single two-level system is presented. It employs five eight-element positive operator-valued measures and a simple algebraic reasoning based on the geometry of the dodecahedron.Comment: REVTeX4, 4 pages, 2 figure
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