3,405 research outputs found

    Diffusive spreading and mixing of fluid monolayers

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    The use of ultra-thin, i.e., monolayer films plays an important role for the emerging field of nano-fluidics. Since the dynamics of such films is governed by the interplay between substrate-fluid and fluid-fluid interactions, the transport of matter in nanoscale devices may be eventually efficiently controlled by substrate engineering. For such films, the dynamics is expected to be captured by two-dimensional lattice-gas models with interacting particles. Using a lattice gas model and the non-linear diffusion equation derived from the microscopic dynamics in the continuum limit, we study two problems of relevance in the context of nano-fluidics. The first one is the case in which along the spreading direction of a monolayer a mesoscopic-sized obstacle is present, with a particular focus on the relaxation of the fluid density profile upon encountering and passing the obstacle. The second one is the mixing of two monolayers of different particle species which spread side by side following the merger of two chemical lanes, here defined as domains of high affinity for fluid adsorption surrounded by domains of low affinity for fluid adsorption.Comment: 12 pages, 3 figure

    Active colloids at fluid interfaces

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    If an active Janus particle is trapped at the interface between a liquid and a fluid, its self-propelled motion along the interface is affected by a net torque on the particle due to the viscosity contrast between the two adjacent fluid phases. For a simple model of an active, spherical Janus colloid we analyze the conditions under which translation occurs along the interface and we provide estimates of the corresponding persistence length. We show that under certain conditions the persistence length of such a particle is significantly larger than the corresponding one in the bulk liquid, which is in line with the trends observed in recent experimental studies

    MOCVD-Fabricated TiO2 Thin Films: Influence of Growth Conditions on Fibroblast Cells Culture

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    TiO2 thin films with various morphologies were grown on Ti substrates by the LP-MOCVD technique (Low Pressure Chemical Vapour Deposition from Metal-Organic precursor), with titanium tetra-iso-propoxide as a precursor. All the films were prepared in the same conditions except the deposition time. They were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical 15 interferometry, water contact angle measurements. MOCVD-fabricated TiO2 thin films are known to be adapted to cell culture for implant requirements. Human gingival fibroblasts were cultured on the various TiO2 deposits. Differences in cell viability (MTT tests) and cell spreading (qualitative assessment) were observed and related to film roughness, wettability and allotropic composition

    Precursor films in wetting phenomena

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    The spontaneous spreading of non-volatile liquid droplets on solid substrates poses a classic problem in the context of wetting phenomena. It is well known that the spreading of a macroscopic droplet is in many cases accompanied by a thin film of macroscopic lateral extent, the so-called precursor film, which emanates from the three-phase contact line region and spreads ahead of the latter with a much higher speed. Such films have been usually associated with liquid-on-solid systems, but in the last decade similar films have been reported to occur in solid-on-solid systems. While the situations in which the thickness of such films is of mesoscopic size are rather well understood, an intriguing and yet to be fully understood aspect is the spreading of microscopic, i.e., molecularly thin films. Here we review the available experimental observations of such films in various liquid-on-solid and solid-on-solid systems, as well as the corresponding theoretical models and studies aimed at understanding their formation and spreading dynamics. Recent developments and perspectives for future research are discussed.Comment: 51 pages, 10 figures; small typos correcte

    Self-propulsion of a catalytically active particle near a planar wall: from reflection to sliding and hovering

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    Micron-sized particles moving through solution in response to self-generated chemical gradients serve as model systems for studying active matter. Their far-reaching potential applications will require the particles to sense and respond to their local environment in a robust manner. The self-generated hydrodynamic and chemical fields, which induce particle motion, probe and are modified by that very environment, including confining boundaries. Focusing on a catalytically active Janus particle as a paradigmatic example, we predict that near a hard planar wall such a particle exhibits several scenarios of motion: reflection from the wall, motion at a steady-state orientation and height above the wall, or motionless, steady "hovering." Concerning the steady states, the height and the orientation are determined both by the proportion of catalyst coverage and the interactions of the solutes with the different "faces" of the particle. Accordingly, we propose that a desired behavior can be selected by tuning these parameters via a judicious design of the particle surface chemistry

    Iris Codes Classification Using Discriminant and Witness Directions

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    The main topic discussed in this paper is how to use intelligence for biometric decision defuzzification. A neural training model is proposed and tested here as a possible solution for dealing with natural fuzzification that appears between the intra- and inter-class distribution of scores computed during iris recognition tests. It is shown here that the use of proposed neural network support leads to an improvement in the artificial perception of the separation between the intra- and inter-class score distributions by moving them away from each other.Comment: 6 pages, 5 figures, Proc. 5th IEEE Int. Symp. on Computational Intelligence and Intelligent Informatics (Floriana, Malta, September 15-17), ISBN: 978-1-4577-1861-8 (electronic), 978-1-4577-1860-1 (print

    Collective dynamics of chemically active particles trapped at a fluid interface

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    Chemically active colloids generate changes in the chemical composition of their surrounding solution and thereby induce flows in the ambient fluid which affect their dynamical evolution. Here we study the many-body dynamics of a monolayer of active particles trapped at a fluid-fluid interface. To this end we consider a mean-field model which incorporates the direct pair interaction (including also the capillary interaction which is caused specifically by the interfacial trapping) as well as the effect of hydrodynamic interactions (including the Marangoni flow induced by the response of the interface to the chemical activity). The values of the relevant physical parameters for typical experimental realizations of such systems are estimated and various scenarios, which are predicted by our approach for the dynamics of the monolayer, are discussed. In particular, we show that the chemically-induced Marangoni flow can prevent the clustering instability driven by the capillary attraction.Comment: 8 pages, 2 figure

    Error Filtration and Entanglement Purification for Quantum Communication

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    The key realisation which lead to the emergence of the new field of quantum information processing is that quantum mechanics, the theory that describes microscopic particles, allows the processing of information in fundamentally new ways. But just as in classical information processing, errors occur in quantum information processing, and these have to be corrected. A fundamental breakthrough was the realisation that quantum error correction is in fact possible. However most work so far has not been concerned with technological feasibility, but rather with proving that quantum error correction is possible in principle. Here we describe a method for filtering out errors and entanglement purification which is particularly suitable for quantum communication. Our method is conceptually new, and, crucially, it is easy to implement in a wide variety of physical systems with present day technology and should therefore be of wide applicability.Comment: 23 pages (latex) and 4 postscript figure
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