434 research outputs found

    Inverse Compton model of pulsar high energy emission

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    We reproduce the broadband spectrum of Crab pulsar, from UV to very high energy gamma-rays - nearly ten decades in energy, within the framework of the cyclotron-self-Compton model. Emission is produced by two counter-streaming beams within the outer gaps, at distances above \sim 20 NS radii. The outward moving beam produces UV-XX-ray photons via Doppler-booster cyclotron emission, and GeV photons by Compton scattering the cyclotron photons produced by the inward going beam. The scattering occurs in the deep Klein-Nishina regime, whereby the IC component provides a direct measurement of particle distribution within the magnetosphere. The required plasma multiplicity is high, 106107\sim 10^6-10^7, but is consistent with the average particle flux injected into the pulsar wind nebula. The importance of Compton scattering in the Klein-Nishina regime also implies the importance of pair production in the outer gaps. We suggest that outer gaps are important sources of pairs in pulsar magnetospheres. Cyclotron motion of particles in the pulsar magnetosphere may be excited due to coherent emission of radio waves by streaming particles at the anomalous cyclotron resonance. Thus, a whole range of Crab non-thermal emission, from coherent radio waves to very high energy γ\gamma-rays - nearly eighteen decades in energy - may be a manifestation of inter-dependent radiation processes. The present model, together with the observational evidence in favor of the IC scattering (Lyutikov et al. 2012; Lyutikov 2012), demonstrates that the inverse Compton scattering can be the dominant high energy emission mechanism in majority of pulsars.Comment: 20 pages, 4 figure

    Mass-loading of bow shock pulsar wind nebulae

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    We investigate the dynamics of bow shock nebulae created by pulsars moving supersonically through a partially ionized interstellar medium. A fraction of interstellar neutral hydrogen atoms penetrating into the tail region of a pulsar wind will undergo photo-ionization due to the UV light emitted by the nebula, with the resulting mass loading dramatically changing the flow dynamics of the light leptonic pulsar wind. Using a quasi 1-D hydrodynamic model of relativistic flow we find that if a relatively small density of neutral hydrogen, as low as 10410^{-4} cm3^{-3}, penetrate inside the pulsar wind, this is sufficient to strongly affect the tail flow. Mass loading leads to the fast expansion of the pulsar wind tail, making the tail flow intrinsically non-stationary. The shapes predicted for the bow shock nebulae compare well with observations, both in Hα\alpha and X-rays.Comment: 7 pages, 2 figures. Proceeding to the conference "High Energy Phenomena in Relativistic Outflow V", La Plata 2015, AAA Workshop Series 8, 201

    Magnetic draping of merging cores and radio bubbles in clusters of galaxies

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    Sharp fronts observed by Chandra satellite between dense cool cluster cores moving with near-sonic velocity through the hotter intergalactic gas, require strong suppression of thermal conductivity across the boundary. This may be due to magnetic fields tangential to the contact surface separating two plasma components. We point out that a super-Alfvenic motion of a plasma cloud (a core of a merging galaxy) through a weakly magnetized intercluster medium leads to "magnetic draping", formation of a thin, strongly magnetized boundary layer with a tangential magnetic field. For supersonic cloud motion, M_s > 1, magnetic field inside the layer reaches near-equipartition values with thermal pressure. Typical thickness of the layer is L /M_A^2 << L, where L is the size of the obstacle (plasma cloud) moving with Alfven Mach number M_A >> 1. To a various degree, magnetic draping occurs both for sub- and supersonic flows, random and ordered magnetic fields and it does not require plasma compressibility. The strongly magnetized layer will thermally isolate the two media and may contribute to the Kelvin-Helmholtz stability of the interface. Similar effects occur for radio bubbles, quasi-spherical expanding cavities blown up by AGN jets; in this case the thickness of the external magnetized layer is smaller, L /M_A^3 << L.Comment: 16 pages, 2 figure

    GRBs from unstable Poynting dominated outflows

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    Poynting flux driven outflows from magnetized rotators are a plausible explanation for gamma-ray burst engines. We suggest a new possibility for how such outflows might transfer energy into radiating particles. We argue that the Poynting flux drives non-linearly unstable large amplitude electromagnetic waves (LAEMW) which ``break'' at radii rt1014r_t \sim 10^{14} cm where the MHD approximation becomes inapplicable. In the ``foaming'' (relativisticly reconnecting) regions formed during the wave breaks the random electric fields stochastically accelerate particles to ultrarelativistic energies which then radiate in turbulent electromagnetic fields. The typical energy of the emitted photons is a fraction of the fundamental Compton energy ϵfc/re \epsilon \sim f \hbar c/r_e with f103f \sim 10^{-3} plus additional boosting due to the bulk motion of the medium. The emission properties are similar to synchrotron radiation, with a typical cooling time 104\sim 10^{-4} sec. During the wave break, the plasma is also bulk accelerated in the outward radial direction and at larger radii can produce afterglows due to the interactions with external medium. The near equipartition fields required by afterglow models maybe due to magnetic field regeneration in the outflowing plasma (similarly to the field generation by LAEMW of laser-plasma interactions) and mixing with the upstream plasma.Comment: 15 pages, 1 figur

    Dynamics of relativistic reconnection

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    The dynamics of the steady-state Sweet--Parker-type reconnection is analyzed in relativistic regime when energy density in the inflowing region is dominated by magnetic field. The structure of reconnection layer (its thickness, inflow and outflow velocities) depends on the ratio of two large dimensionless parameters of the problem - magnetization parameter σ1\sigma \gg 1 (the ratio of the magnetic to particle energy-densities in the inflowing region) and the Lundquist number SS. The inflow velocity may be relativistic (for S<σ S< \sigma) or non-relativistic (for S>σ S > \sigma), while the outflowing plasma is moving always relativisticly. For extremely magnetized plasmas with σS2\sigma \geq S^2, the inflow four-velocity becomes of the order of the \Alfven four-velocity.Comment: 22 pages, 4 figures, submitted to Ap

    Resolving doppler-factor crisis in active galactic nuclei: Non-steady magnetized outflows

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    Magnetically driven non-stationary acceleration of jets in active galactic nuclei results in the leading parts of the flow being accelerated to much higher Lorentz factors than in the case of steady-state acceleration with the same parameters. The higher Doppler-boosted parts of the flow may dominate the high-energy emission of blazar jets. We suggest that highly variable GeV and TeV emission in blazars is produced by the faster moving leading edges of highly magnetized non-stationary ejection blobs, while the radio data trace the slower-moving bulk flow. Thus, the radio and gamma-ray emission regions have different, but correlated, Doppler factors. High-energy emission is generated, typically within the optically thick core, in the outer parts of the broad-line emission region, avoiding the radiative drag on the faster parts of the flow. The radio emission should correlate with the gamma-ray emission, delayed with frequency-dependent time lag of the order of weeks to months. Model predictions compare favorably with the latest Fermi gamma-ray and MOJAVE radio very long baseline interferometry results