2,820 research outputs found

    Medical Investigation and Documentation of Torture: A Handbook for Health Professionals

    Get PDF
    This Handbook is primarily aimed at raising awareness of relevant medical ethical, legal and professional standards of the many health professionals who would wish to do the most conscientious job, with a view to helping victims of torture and contributing to efforts to eliminate the practice. The key task is to establish the most scientifically valid documentation concerning possible torture of individuals, consistent with the often difficult conditions under which the work sometimes has to be undertaken. It is inspired by The Istanbul Protocol, approved by United Nations bodies, which lays down the best professional standards for physicians working in the field. Yet it recognises that not all health professionals called on to do the work will have extensive experience in this field and it presents the material in a way that aims to be accessible to all these professionals. Guidance is given in the general skills of interviewing, as well as the medical examination and documentation. In addition to the relevant ethical and legal principles, the Handbook also points to sources of advice for those who wish to further their knowledge or gain support and advice on particular situations

    Planck Observations of M33

    Get PDF
    We have performed a comprehensive investigation of the global integrated flux density of M33 from radio to ultraviolet wavelengths, finding that the data between \sim100 GHz and 3 THz are accurately described by a single modified blackbody curve with a dust temperature of TdustT_\mathrm{dust} = 21.67±\pm0.30 K and an effective dust emissivity index of βeff\beta_\mathrm{eff} = 1.35±\pm0.10, with no indication of an excess of emission at millimeter/sub-millimeter wavelengths. However, sub-dividing M33 into three radial annuli, we found that the global emission curve is highly degenerate with the constituent curves representing the sub-regions of M33. We also found gradients in TdustT_\mathrm{dust} and βeff\beta_\mathrm{eff} across the disk of M33, with both quantities decreasing with increasing radius. Comparing the M33 dust emissivity with that of other Local Group members, we find that M33 resembles the Magellanic Clouds rather than the larger galaxies, i.e., the Milky Way and M31. In the Local Group sample, we find a clear correlation between global dust emissivity and metallicity, with dust emissivity increasing with metallicity. A major aspect of this analysis is the investigation into the impact of fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) on the integrated flux density spectrum of M33. We found that failing to account for these CMB fluctuations would result in a significant over-estimate of TdustT_\mathrm{dust} by \sim5 K and an under-estimate of βeff\beta_\mathrm{eff} by \sim0.4.Comment: Accepted for publication in MNRA

    An examination of the precipitation delivery mechanisms for Dolleman Island, eastern Antarctic Peninsula

    Get PDF
    Copyright @ 2004 Wiley-BlackwellThe variability of size and source of significant precipitation events were studied at an Antarctic ice core drilling site: Dolleman Island (DI), located on the eastern coast of the Antarctic Peninsula. Significant precipitation events that occur at DI were temporally located in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) reanalysis data set, ERA-40. The annual and summer precipitation totals from ERA-40 at DI both show significant increases over the reanalysis period. Three-dimensional backwards air parcel trajectories were then run for 5 d using the ECMWF ERA-15 wind fields. Cluster analyses were performed on two sets of these backwards trajectories: all days in the range 1979–1992 (the climatological time-scale) and a subset of days when a significant precipitation event occurred. The principal air mass sources and delivery mechanisms were found to be the Weddell Sea via lee cyclogenesis, the South Atlantic when there was a weak circumpolar trough (CPT) and the South Pacific when the CPT was deep. The occurrence of precipitation bearing air masses arriving via a strong CPT was found to have a significant correlation with the southern annular mode (SAM); however, the arrival of air masses from the same region over the climatological time-scale showed no such correlation. Despite the dominance in both groups of back trajectories of the westerly circulation around Antarctica, some other key patterns were identified. Most notably there was a higher frequency of lee cyclogenesis events in the significant precipitation trajectories compared to the climatological time-scale. There was also a tendency for precipitation trajectories to come from more northerly latitudes, mostly from 50–70°S. The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) was found to have a strong influence on the mechanism by which the precipitation was delivered; the frequency of occurrence of precipitation from the east (west) of DI increased during El Niño (La Niña) events

    Dark Energy Constraints from Galaxy Cluster Peculiar Velocities

    Full text link
    Future multifrequency microwave background experiments with arcminute resolution and micro-Kelvin temperature sensitivity will be able to detect the kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich (kSZ) effect, providing a way to measure radial peculiar velocities of massive galaxy clusters. We show that cluster peculiar velocities have the potential to constrain several dark energy parameters. We compare three velocity statistics (the distribution of radial velocities, the mean pairwise streaming velocity, and the velocity correlation function) and analyze the relative merits of these statistics in constraining dark energy parameters. Of the three statistics, mean pairwise streaming velocity provides constraints that are least sensitive to velocity errors: the constraints on parameters degrades only by a factor of two when the random error is increased from 100 to 500 km/s. We also compare cluster velocities with other dark energy probes proposed in the Dark Energy Task Force report. For cluster velocity measurements with realistic priors, the eventual constraints on the dark energy density, the dark energy equation of state and its evolution are comparable to constraints from supernovae measurements, and better than cluster counts and baryon acoustic oscillations; adding velocity to other dark energy probes improves constraints on the figure of merit by more than a factor of two. For upcoming Sunyaev-Zeldovich galaxy cluster surveys, even velocity measurements with errors as large as 1000 km/s will substantially improve the cosmological constraints compared to using the cluster number density alone.Comment: 25 pages, 10 figures. Results and conclusions unchanged. Minor changes to match the accepted version in Physical Review

    Compression failure of angle-ply laminates

    Get PDF
    Test results from the compression loading of (+ or - Theta/ - or + Theta)(sub 6s) angle-ply IM7-8551-7a specimens, 0 less than or = Theta less than or = 90 degs, are presented. The observed failure strengths and modes are discussed, and typical stress-strain relations shown. Using classical lamination theory and the maximum stress criterion, an attempt is made to predict failure stress as a function of Theta. This attempt results in poor correlation with test results and thus a more advanced model is used. The model, which is based on a geometrically nonlinear theory, and which was taken from previous work, includes the influence of observed layer waviness. The waviness is described by the wave length and the wave amplitude. The theory is briefly described and results from the theory are correlated with test results. It is shown that by using levels of waviness observed in the specimens, the correlation between predictions and observations is good

    Our Peculiar Motion Away from the Local Void

    Full text link
    The peculiar velocity of the Local Group of galaxies manifested in the Cosmic Microwave Background dipole is found to decompose into three dominant components. The three components are clearly separated because they arise on distinct spatial scales and are fortuitously almost orthogonal in their influences. The nearest, which is distinguished by a velocity discontinuity at ~7 Mpc, arises from the evacuation of the Local Void. We lie in the Local Sheet that bounds the void. Random motions within the Local Sheet are small. Our Galaxy participates in the bulk motion of the Local Sheet away from the Local Void. The component of our motion on an intermediate scale is attributed to the Virgo Cluster and its surroundings, 17 Mpc away. The third and largest component is an attraction on scales larger than 3000 km/s and centered near the direction of the Centaurus Cluster. The amplitudes of the three components are 259, 185, and 455 km/s, respectively, adding collectively to 631 km/s in the reference frame of the Local Sheet. Taking the nearby influences into account causes the residual attributed to large scales to align with observed concentrations of distant galaxies and reduces somewhat the amplitude of motion attributed to their pull. On small scales, in addition to the motion of our Local Sheet away from the Local Void, the nearest adjacent filament, the Leo Spur, is seen to be moving in a direction that will lead to convergence with our filament. Finally, a good distance to an isolated galaxy within the Local Void reveals that this dwarf system has a motion of at least 230 km/s away from the void center. Given the velocities expected from gravitational instability theory in the standard cosmological paradigm, the distance to the center of the Local Void must be at least 23 Mpc from our position. The Local Void is large!Comment: Tentatively scheduled for Astrophysical Journal, 676 (March 20), 2008. 18 figures, 3 tables including web link for 2 tables, web links to 2 video

    Beyond prejudice: Are negative evaluations the problem and is getting us to like one another more the solution?

    Get PDF
    publication-status: Acceptedtypes: ArticleThis is a post print version of an article published in Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2012, 35 (6), pp 438-439 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X12001252 Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2012For most of the history of prejudice research, negativity has been treated as its emotional and cognitive signature, a conception that continues to dominate work on the topic. By this definition, prejudice occurs when we dislike or derogate members of other groups. Recent research, however, has highlighted the need for a more nuanced and ‘inclusive’ (Eagly 2004) perspective on the role of intergroup emotions and beliefs in sustaining discrimination. On the one hand, several independent lines of research have shown that unequal intergroup relations are often marked by attitudinal complexity, with positive responses such as affection and admiration mingling with negative responses such as contempt and resentment. Simple antipathy is the exception rather than the rule. On the other hand, there is mounting evidence that nurturing bonds of affection between the advantaged and the disadvantaged sometimes entrenches rather than disrupts wider patterns of discrimination. Notably, prejudice reduction interventions may have ironic effects on the political attitudes of the historically disadvantaged, decreasing their perceptions of injustice and willingness to engage in collective action to transform social inequalities. These developments raise a number of important questions. Has the time come to challenge the assumption that negative evaluations are inevitably the cognitive and affective hallmarks of discrimination? Is the orthodox concept of prejudice in danger of side-tracking, if not obstructing, progress towards social justice in a fuller sense? What are the prospects for reconciling a prejudice reduction model of change, designed to get people to like one another more, with a collective action model of change, designed to ignite struggles to achieve intergroup equality

    Normocalcemic hyperparathyroidism : study of its prevalence and natural history

    Get PDF
    Context Normocalcemic hyperparathyroidism (NPHPT) is characterized by persistently normal calcium levels and elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) values, after excluding other causes of secondary hyperparathyroidism. The prevalence of the disease varies greatly and the data on the natural history of this disease are sparse and inconclusive. Objectives The objectives of this study are to describe the prevalence of NPHPT and its natural history in a referral population and to compare the variability of serum calcium with a group of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Design A retrospective study was conducted over 5 years. Setting The setting for this study was a metabolic bone referral center. Patients A total of 6280 patients were referred for a bone mineral density measurement (BMD). Main Outcome Measures The prevalence and natural history of NPHPT and variability of calcium were the main outcome measures. Results We identified NPHPT patients using data from the day of the BMD measurement. We excluded patients with low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or vitamin D, or with no measurements available. Based on the evaluation of their medical files, we identified 11 patients with NPHPT (prevalence 0.18%). Only 4 patients had consistent normocalcemia throughout their follow-up, with only 2 also having consistently high PTH. None had consistently normal eGFR or vitamin D. Intermittent hypercalcemia was present in 7 of the 11 NPHPT patients. The mean adjusted calcium was found to be significantly lower in the NPHPT group compared with the PHPT group but higher than the control group. PTH was similar for NPHPT and PHPT. These 2 groups had similar variability in serum calcium. Conclusions NPHPT patients often have episodes of hypercalcemia. We believe that NPHPT is a mild form of PHPT

    Diagnostic Communication in the Memory Clinic: a Conversation Analytic Perspective

    Get PDF
    Objectives: Whether and how patients should be told their dementia diagnosis, has been an area of much debate. While there is now recognition that early diagnosis is important for dementia care little research has looked at how dementia-related diagnostic information is actually verbally communicated. The limited previous research suggests that the absence of explicit terminology (e.g., use of the term Alzheimer's) is problematic. This paper interrogates this assumption through a conversation analysis of British naturalistic memory clinic interaction. Method: This paper is based on video-recordings of communication within a UK memory clinic. Appointments with 29 patients and accompanying persons were recorded, and the corpus was repeatedly listened to, in conjunction with the transcripts in order to identify the segments of talk where there was an action hearable as diagnostic delivery, that is where the clinician is evaluating the patient's condition. Results: Using a conversation analytic approach this analysis suggests that diagnostic communication, which is sensitive and responsive to the patient and their carers, is not predicated on the presence or absence of particular lexical choices. There is inherent complexity regarding dementia diagnosis, especially in the ‘early stages’, which is produced through and reflected in diagnostic talk in clinical encounters. Conclusion: In the context of continuity of dementia care, diagnostic information is communicated in a way that conforms to intersubjective norms of minimizing catastrophic reactions in medical communication, and is sensitive to problems associated with ‘insight’ in terms of delivery and receipt or non-receipt of diagnosis
    corecore