6,863 research outputs found

    Physical state representations and gauge fixing in string theory

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    We re-examine physical state representations in the covariant quantization of bosonic string. We especially consider one parameter family of gauge fixing conditions for the residual gauge symmetry due to null states (or BRST exact states), and obtain explicit representations of observable Hilbert space which include those of the DDF states. This analysis is aimed at giving a necessary ingredient for the complete gauge fixing procedures of covariant string field theory such as temporal or light-cone gauge.Comment: 16 page

    Prompt GeV-TeV Emission of Gamma-Ray Bursts Due to High-Energy Protons, Muons and Electron-Positron Pairs

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    In the framework of the internal shock scenario, we model the broadband prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with emphasis on the GeV-TeV bands, utilizing Monte Carlo simulations that include various processes associated with electrons and protons accelerated to high energies. While inverse Compton emission from primary electrons is often dominant, different proton-induced mechanisms can also give rise to distinct high-energy components, such as synchrotron emission from protons, muons or secondary electrons/positrons injected via photomeson interactions. In some cases, they give rise to double spectral breaks that can serve as unique signatures of ultra-high-energy protons. We discuss the conditions favorable for such emission, and how they are related to the production of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos in internal shocks. Ongoing and upcoming observations by {\it GLAST}, atmospheric Cerenkov telescopes and other facilities will test these expectations and provide important information on the physical conditions in GRB outflows.Comment: 11 pages, 8 figures and 14 appendix figures, accepted for publication in ApJ vol. 671 with minor revision

    Observability of surface Andreev bound states in a topological insulator in proximity to an s-wave superconductor

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    To guide experimental work on the search for Majorana zero-energy modes, we calculate the superconducting pairing symmetry of a three-dimensional topological insulator in combination with an s-wave superconductor. In analogy to the case of nanowires with strong spin-orbit coupling we show how the pairing symmetry changes across different topological regimes. We demonstrate that a dominant p-wave pairing relation is not sufficient to realize a Majorana zero-energy mode useful for quantum computation. Our main result of this paper is the relation between odd-frequency pairing and Majorana zero energy modes by using Green functions techniques in three-dimensional topological insulators in the so-called Majorana regime. We discuss thereafter how the pairing relations in the different regimes can be observed in the shape of the tunneling conductance of an s-wave proximized three-dimensional topological insulator. We will discuss the necessity to incorporate a ferromagnetic insulator to localize the zero-energy bound state to the interface as a Majorana mode.Comment: Accepted for publication in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matte

    Level Truncated Tachyon Potential in Various Gauges

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    New gauge fixing condition with single gauge parameter proposed by the authors is applied to the level truncated analysis of tachyon condensation in cubic open string field theory. It is found that the only one real non-trivial extremum persists to appear in the well-defined region of the gauge parameter, while the other solutions are turned out to be gauge-artifacts. Contrary to the previously known pathology in the Feynman-Siegel gauge, tachyon potential is remarkably smooth enough around Landau-type gauge.Comment: 13 pages, 5 figures. For associated movie files, see http://hep1.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~kato/sft

    Scattering by randomly oriented ellipsoids: Application to aerosol and cloud problems

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    A program was developed for computing the scattering and absorption by arbitrarily oriented and randomly oriented prolate and oblate spheroids. This permits examination of the effect of particle shape for cases ranging from needles through spheres to platelets. Applications of this capability to aerosol and cloud problems are discussed. Initial results suggest that the effect of nonspherical particle shape on transfer of radiation through aerosol layers and cirrus clouds, as required for many climate studies, can be readily accounted for by defining an appropriate effective spherical particle radius

    Tenth-order lepton g-2: Contribution from diagrams containing a sixth-order light-by-light-scattering subdiagram internally

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    This paper reports the result of our evaluation of the tenth-order QED correction to the lepton g-2 from Feynman diagrams which have sixth-order light-by-light-scattering subdiagrams, none of whose vertices couple to the external magnetic field. The gauge-invariant set of these diagrams, called Set II(e), consists of 180 vertex diagrams. In the case of the electron g-2 (a_e), where the light-by-light subdiagram consists of the electron loop, the contribution to a_e is found to be - 1.344 9 (10) (\alpha /\pi)^5. The contribution of the muon loop to a_e is - 0.000 465 (4) (\alpha /\pi)^5. The contribution of the tau-lepton loop is about two orders of magnitudes smaller than that of the muon loop and hence negligible. The sum of all of these contributions to a_e is - 1.345 (1) (\alpha /\pi)^5. We have also evaluated the contribution of Set II(e) to the muon g-2 (a_\mu). The contribution to a_\mu from the electron loop is 3.265 (12) (\alpha /\pi)^5, while the contribution of the tau-lepton loop is -0.038 06 (13) (\alpha /\pi)^5. The total contribution to a_\mu, which is the sum of these two contributions and the mass-independent part of a_e, is 1.882 (13) (\alpha /\pi)^5.Comment: 18 pages, 3 figures, REVTeX4, axodraw.sty used, changed title, corrected uncertainty of a_mu, added a referenc

    Quantum theory as a relevant framework for the statement of probabilistic and many-valued logic

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    Based on ideas of quantum theory of open systems we propose the consistent approach to the formulation of logic of plausible propositions. To this end we associate with every plausible proposition diagonal matrix of its likelihood and examine it as density matrix of relevant quantum system. We are showing that all logical connectives between plausible propositions can be represented as special positive valued transformations of these matrices. We demonstrate also the above transformations can be realized in relevant composite quantum systems by quantum engineering methods. The approach proposed allows one not only to reproduce and generalize results of well-known logical systems (Boolean, Lukasiewicz and so on) but also to classify and analyze from unified point of view various actual problems in psychophysics and social sciences.Comment: 7 page
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