96 research outputs found

    Electric-field Control of Magnetism with Emergent Topological Hall Effect in SrRuO3 through Proton Evolution

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    Ionic substitution forms an essential pathway to manipulate the carrier density and crystalline symmetry of materials via ion-lattice-electron coupling, leading to a rich spectrum of electronic states in strongly correlated systems. Using the ferromagnetic metal SrRuO3 as a model system, we demonstrate an efficient and reversible control of both carrier density and crystalline symmetry through the ionic liquid gating induced protonation. The insertion of protons electron-dopes SrRuO3, leading to an exotic ferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase transition along with the increase of proton concentration. Intriguingly, we observe an emergent topological Hall effect at the boundary of the phase transition as the consequence of the newly-established Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction owing to the breaking of inversion symmetry in protonated SrRuO3 with the proton compositional film-depth gradient. We envision that electric-field controlled protonation opens a novel strategy to design material functionalities

    RNAseq Analysis of Novel 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Chalcogen Analogues Reveals Anti-Tubulin Properties on Cancer Cell Lines

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    1,3,4-Oxadiazole derivatives are among the most studied anticancer drugs. Previous studies have analyzed the action of different 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives and their effects on cancer cells. This study investigated the characterization of two new compounds named 6 and 14 on HeLa and PC-3 cancer cell lines. Based on the previously obtained IC50, cell cycle effects were monitored by flow cytometry. RNA sequencing (RNAseq) was performed to identify differentially expressed genes, followed by functional annotation using gene ontology (GO), KEGG signaling pathway enrichment, and protein–protein interaction (PPI) network analyses. The tubulin polymerization assay was used to analyze the interaction of both compounds with tubulin. The results showed that 6 and 14 strongly inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells by arresting them in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Transcriptome analysis showed that exposure of HeLa and PC-3 cells to the compounds caused a marked reprograming of gene expression. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that differentially expressed genes were significantly enriched throughout the cell cycle and cancer-related biological processes. Furthermore, PPI network, hub gene, and CMap analyses revealed that compounds 14 and 6 shared target genes with established microtubule inhibitors, indicating points of similarity between the two molecules and microtubule inhibitors in terms of the mechanism of action. They were also able to influence the polymerization process of tubulin, suggesting the potential of these new compounds to be used as efficient chemotherapeutic agents

    Reversible manipulation of the magnetic state in SrRuO3 through electric-field controlled proton evolution

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    Ionic substitution forms an essential pathway to manipulate the structural phase, carrier density and crystalline symmetry of materials via ion-electron-lattice coupling, leading to a rich spectrum of electronic states in strongly correlated systems. Using the ferromagnetic metal SrRuO3 as a model system, we demonstrate an efficient and reversible control of both structural and electronic phase transformations through the electric-field controlled proton evolution with ionic liquid gating. The insertion of protons results in a large structural expansion and increased carrier density, leading to an exotic ferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase transition. Importantly, we reveal a novel protonated compound of HSrRuO3 with paramagnetic metallic as ground state. We observe a topological Hall effect at the boundary of the phase transition due to the proton concentration gradient across the film-depth. We envision that electric-field controlled protonation opens up a pathway to explore novel electronic states and material functionalities in protonated material systems

    The Forward Physics Facility at the High-Luminosity LHC

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    Target identification of small molecules with antiproliferative properties

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    1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives are widely used in the research of antineoplastic drugs. On the basis of previous work, 16 new 1,3,4-oxadiazole compounds with different structural types were designed and synthesized on the basis of 2j, in order to obtain new efficacious anticancer with low toxicity and side effects. In the present research, the results showed that 7FB, 16FB, 8VDB, 22VDB, and 23VDB had a significant inhibitory effect on tumor cell lines and caused cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in a time-dependent manner in Hela and PC-3 cells. In order to further study 2j and its derivatives possible targets and identify molecular mechanisms, the DEGs were determined after 2j, 16FB and 8VDB treatment. RNA-seq was performed and data were analyzed using functional (GO term) and pathway (KEGG) enrichment of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The hub genes of anti-tumor small molecules were determined by the analysis of protein-protein interaction networks. The results showed that 2j and its derivatives were tubulin inhibitors, mainly affected tumor cells through the cell cycle, FoxO signaling pathway, and apoptotic and p53 signaling pathways. Based on STRING analysis of function gene networks, hub genes were identified and the small molecular targets obtained by CMap comparison, the possible targets of 2j, 16FB and 8VDB could be TUBA1A, TUBA4A, and TUBB. Molecular docking results indicated that 2j interacted at the colchicine-binding site on tubulin

    Thermal Performance of an Energy Pile Group with a Deeply Penetrating U-Shaped Heat Exchanger

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    This study presents a novel heat exchanger configuration, called a deeply penetrating U-shaped configuration, for energy piles. The outlet water temperature, temperature variation along the tube, and heat transfer rate are simulated and computed using Comsol Multiphysics software. The simulations are for the cooling mode. The proposed configuration is compared with traditional U-shaped and W-shaped configurations to prove its superiority. The thermal performance of the pile group is compared with that of a single pile to investigate the effects of the pile group on the heat transfer. A parametric analysis is performed to investigate the effects of several important parameters (i.e., pile spacing, pile diameter, soil type, and thermal parameters) on the heat transfer performance of an energy pile group with the proposed deeply penetrating U-shaped configuration. The results indicate that the corner pile indicates a nonnegligible heat transfer rate 6.8% and 9.9% higher than the central pile in quincuncial and squared arrangements. Purely from the standpoint of thermal performance, the pile spacing is recommended to be more than 6.8 times the pile diameter to reduce the influence of the pile group on the heat transfer capacity

    Numerical Study on Optimal Scheme of the Geothermally Heated Bridge Deck System

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    Ground source deicing system application in bridge decks is an alternative to salt use, which reduces corrosion and extends the deck service life. Herein, a preliminary parametric numerical analysis is performed to investigate the effects of several important parameters (tube spacing, inlet temperature, flow rate, and concrete cover) on heat transfer performance. Three evaluation indexes (average top surface temperature, snow melting proportion, and heat absorption power) are introduced, and a synthetic evaluation index is proposed to comprehensively consider factors. Mainly referring to the synthetic evaluation index, the optimal design scheme of a geothermally heated bridge deck system under various conditions (layout, lane number, ambient temperature, and tube spacing) is obtained and analyzed to determine the optimal inlet temperature and guide heated bridge deck design. Finally, the influence of wind speed and two adjustment methods are studied. The results indicate that the horizontal layout is the recommended circulating tube layout. The established empirical equations reveal that the optimal inlet temperature is linearly related to ambient temperature and exhibits a quadratic relationship with tube spacing. There is no need to add a heat insulation layer at the bridge deck bottom, and only tubes arranged near the wheels in lanes are recommended

    Synthesis of Diamond Nanoplatelets/Carbon Nanowalls on Graphite Substrate by MPCVD

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    The films composed of carbon nanowalls and diamond nanoplatelets, respectively, can be simultaneously formed on graphite substrate by controlling the hydrogen etching rate during microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition. To modulate the etching rate, two kinds of substrate design were used: a bare graphite plate and a graphite groove covered with a single crystal diamond sheet. After deposition at 1200 degrees C for 3 hours, we find that dense diamond nanoplatelets were grown on the bare graphite, whereas carbon nanowalls were formed on the grooved surface, indicating that not only reaction temperature but also etching behavior is a key factor for nanostructure formation

    Growth of mirror-like ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films by a facile hybrid CVD approach

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    In this study, growth of mirror-like ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films by a facile hybrid CVD approach was presented. The nucleation and deposition of UNCD films were conducted in microwave plasma CVD (MPCVD) and direct current glow discharge CVD (DC GD CVD) on silicon substrates, respectively. A very high nucleation density (about 1 x 10(11) nuclei cm(-2)) was obtained after plasma pretreatment. Furthermore, large area mirror-like UNCD films of Phi 50 mm were synthesized by DC GD CVD. The thickness and grain size of the UNCD films are 24 mu m and 7.1 nm, respectively. In addition, the deposition mechanism of the UNCD films was discussed
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