2,551 research outputs found

    A 10-day vacancy period after cleaning and disinfection has no effect on the bacterial load in pig nursery units

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    Background: Biosecurity measures such as cleaning, disinfection and a vacancy period between production cycles on pig farms are essential to prevent disease outbreaks. No studies have tested the effect of a longer vacancy period on bacterial load in nursery units. Methods: The present study evaluated the effect of a 10-day vacancy period in pig nursery units on total aerobic flora, Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, faecal coliforms and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Three vacancy periods of 10 days were monitored, each time applied in 3 units. The microbiological load was measured before disinfection and at 1, 4, 7 and 10 days after disinfection. Results: No significant decrease or increase in E. coli, faecal coliforms, MRSA and Enterococcus spp. was noticed. Total aerobic flora counts were the lowest on day 4 after disinfection (i.e. 4.07 log CFU/625 cm(2)) (P < 0.05), but the difference with other sampling moments was limited (i.e. 0.6 log CFU/625 cm(2)) and therefore negligible. Furthermore, this observation on day 4 was not confirmed for the other microbiological parameters. After disinfection, drinking nipples were still mostly contaminated with total aerobic flora (i.e. 5.32 log CFU/625 cm(2)) and Enterococcus spp. (i.e. 95 % of the samples were positive) (P < 0.01); the feeding troughs were the cleanest location (total aerobic flora: 3.53 log CFU/625 cm(2) and Enterococcus spp.: 50 % positive samples) (P < 0.01). Conclusions: This study indicates that prolonging the vacancy period in nursery units to 10 days after disinfection with no extra biosecurity measures has no impact on the environmental load of total aerobic flora, E. coli, faecal coliforms, MRSA and Enterococcus spp.

    When the Earth trembles in the americas: the experience of haiti and chile 2010.

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    The response of the nephrological community to the Haiti and Chile earthquakes which occurred in the first months of 2010 is described. In Haiti, renal support was organized by the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force (RDRTF) of the International Society of Nephrology (ISN) in close collaboration with Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), and covered both patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) and patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The majority of AKI patients (19/27) suffered from crush syndrome and recovered their kidney function. The remaining 8 patients with AKI showed acute-to-chronic renal failure with very low recovery rates. The intervention of the RDRTF-ISN involved 25 volunteers of 9 nationalities, lasted exactly 2 months, and was characterized by major organizational difficulties and problems to create awareness among other rescue teams regarding the availability of dialysis possibilities. Part of the Haitian patients with AKI reached the Dominican Republic (DR) and received their therapy there. The nephrological community in the DR was able to cope with this extra patient load. In both Haiti and the DR, dialysis treatment was able to be prevented in at least 40 patients by screening and adequate fluid administration. Since laboratory facilities were destroyed in Port-au-Prince and were thus lacking during the first weeks of the intervention, the use from the very beginning on of a point-of-care device (i-STAT®) was very efficient for the detection of aberrant kidney function and electrolyte parameters. In Chile, nephrological problems were essentially related to difficulties delivering dialysis treatment to CKD patients, due to the damage to several units. This necessitated the reallocation of patients and the adaptation of their schedules. The problems could be handled by the local nephrologists. These observations illustrate that local and international preparedness might be life-saving if renal problems occur in earthquake circumstances

    Is competitive exclusion a valuable alternative for classical cleaning and disinfection of pig-growing units?

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    Colonization of the environment of pig-growing units by pathogenic microrganisms is an important factor in development of endemic diseases in pigs and, in spreading of zoonotic diseases. These pathogens are mostly controlled by the use of antibiotics and disinfection during vacancy. Because, the past years an increasing resistance against these measures is noticed, alternative methods such as competitive exclusion (CE) are promoted as promising. In this study the effect of a CE protocol on the bacterial infection in piggrowing units was compared to a classical cleaning and disinfection (C&D) protocol. Tests were performed during three successive production rounds using multiple identical pig-growing units. CE protocol consisted of cleaning (no disinfection) after loading piglets and spraying probiotic bacteria (Bacillus spp. spores) during vacancy and production. The cleaning product also contained Bacillus spores. Sampling was performed at different time-points: immediately after pig loading (manure still present); 24 hours after cleaning (CE units) or after disinfection (control units); after one week and five weeks of production (piglets present). At each time point, swab samples for analyses were taken. Enumerations of bacterial spores, Enterococcus spp., E. coli, fecal coliforms and MRSA and detections of E. coli, fecal coliforms and MRSA were performed. Next to bacterial analyses, also feed conversion and fecal consistency was monitored. This study showed that, although probiotic spores were administered well, the analyzed bacteria were not decreased after three production rounds in CE units and remained on the same level as the control units (C&D). Also, the infection pressure in CE units during vacancy was not as much reduced as after the disinfection-step in control units. Finally, no differences in feed conversion and fecal consistency were found. These results indicate that the used CE protocol is not a valuable alternative for classical C&D

    Comparison of competitive exclusion with classical cleaning and disinfection on bacterial load in pig nursery units

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    Background: Colonisation of the environment of nursery units by pathogenic micro-organisms is an important factor in the persistence and spread of endemic diseases in pigs and zoonotic pathogens. These pathogens are generally controlled by the use of antibiotics and disinfectants. Since an increasing resistance against these measures has been reported in recent years, methods such as competitive exclusion (CE) are promoted as promising alternatives. Results: This study showed that the infection pressure in CE units after microbial cleaning was not reduced to the same degree as in control units. Despite sufficient administration of probiotic-type spores, the analysed bacteria did not decrease in number after 3 production rounds in CE units, indicating no competitive exclusion. In addition, no differences in feed conversion were found between piglets raised in CE and control units in our study. Also, no differences in faecal consistency (indicator for enteric diseases) was noticed. Conclusion: These results indicate that the CE protocol is not a valuable alternative for classical C&D

    Converging identities: dimensions of acculturation and personal identity status among immigrant college students

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    The present study was designed to ascertain the extent to which dimensions of acculturation would differ across personal identity statuses in a sample of 2,411, first and second generation immigrant college‐attending emerging adults. Participants from 30 colleges and universities around the United States completed measures of personal identity processes as well as of heritage and American cultural practices, values, and identifications. Cluster‐analytic procedures were used to classify participants into personal identity statuses based on the personal identity processes. Results indicated that, across ethnic groups, individuals in the achieved and searching moratorium statuses reported the greatest endorsement of heritage and American cultural practices, values, and identifications; and individuals in the carefree diffusion status reported the lowest endorsement of all the cultural variables under study. These results are discussed in terms of the convergence between personal identity and cultural identity processes
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