23 research outputs found

    TLMCM Network for Medical Image Hierarchical Multi-Label Classification

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    Medical Image Hierarchical Multi-Label Classification (MI-HMC) is of paramount importance in modern healthcare, presenting two significant challenges: data imbalance and \textit{hierarchy constraint}. Existing solutions involve complex model architecture design or domain-specific preprocessing, demanding considerable expertise or effort in implementation. To address these limitations, this paper proposes Transfer Learning with Maximum Constraint Module (TLMCM) network for the MI-HMC task. The TLMCM network offers a novel approach to overcome the aforementioned challenges, outperforming existing methods based on the Area Under the Average Precision and Recall Curve(AU(PRC)‟AU\overline{(PRC)}) metric. In addition, this research proposes two novel accuracy metrics, EMREMR and HammingAccuracyHammingAccuracy, which have not been extensively explored in the context of the MI-HMC task. Experimental results demonstrate that the TLMCM network achieves high multi-label prediction accuracy(80%80\%-90%90\%) for MI-HMC tasks, making it a valuable contribution to healthcare domain applications

    Discrepancies in resistant starch and starch physicochemical properties between rice mutants similar in high amylose content

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    The content of resistant starch (RS) was considered positively correlated with the apparent amylose content (AAC). Here, we analyzed two Indica rice mutants, RS111 and Zhedagaozhi 1B, similar in high AAC and found that their RS content differed remarkably. RS111 had higher RS3 content but lower RS2 content than Zhedagaozhi 1B; correspondingly, cooked RS111 showed slower digestibility. RS111 had smaller irregular and oval starch granules when compared with Zhedagaozhi 1B and the wild type. Zhedagaozhi 1B showed a B-type starch pattern, different from RS111 and the wild type, which showed A-type starch. Meantime, RS111 had more fa and fb1 but less fb3 than Zhedagaozhi 1B. Both mutants showed decreased viscosity and swelling power when compared with the parents. RS111 had the lowest viscosity, and Zhedagaozhi 1B had the smallest swelling power. The different fine structures of amylopectin between RS111 and Zhedagaozhi 1B led to different starch types, gelatinization properties, paste viscosity, and digestibility. In addition to enhancing amylose content, modifications on amylopectin structure showed great potent in breeding rice with different RS2 and RS3 content, which could meet the increasing needs for various rice germplasms

    TRY plant trait database – enhanced coverage and open access

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    Plant traits - the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants - determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast area of research spanning from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology, to biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape management, restoration, biogeography and earth system modelling. Since its foundation in 2007, the TRY database of plant traits has grown continuously. It now provides unprecedented data coverage under an open access data policy and is the main plant trait database used by the research community worldwide. Increasingly, the TRY database also supports new frontiers of trait‐based plant research, including the identification of data gaps and the subsequent mobilization or measurement of new data. To support this development, in this article we evaluate the extent of the trait data compiled in TRY and analyse emerging patterns of data coverage and representativeness. Best species coverage is achieved for categorical traits - almost complete coverage for ‘plant growth form’. However, most traits relevant for ecology and vegetation modelling are characterized by continuous intraspecific variation and trait–environmental relationships. These traits have to be measured on individual plants in their respective environment. Despite unprecedented data coverage, we observe a humbling lack of completeness and representativeness of these continuous traits in many aspects. We, therefore, conclude that reducing data gaps and biases in the TRY database remains a key challenge and requires a coordinated approach to data mobilization and trait measurements. This can only be achieved in collaboration with other initiatives

    Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Intestinal Epithelial Cell Function and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

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    In eukaryotic cells, perturbation of protein folding homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the ER lumen, which activates intracellular signaling pathways termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). Recent studies have linked ER stress and the UPR to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The microenvironment of the ER is affected by a myriad of intestinal luminal molecules, implicating ER stress and the UPR in proper maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. Several intestinal cell populations, including Paneth and goblet cells, require robust ER function for protein folding, maturation, and secretion. Prolonged ER stress and impaired UPR signaling may cause IBD through: (1) induction of intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, (2) disruption of mucosal barrier function, and (3) induction of the proinflammatory response in the gut. Based on our increased understanding of ER stress in IBD, new pharmacological approaches can be developed to improve intestinal homeostasis by targeting ER protein-folding in the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs)

    A novel MBBR–MFC integrated system for high-strength pulp/paper wastewater treatment and bioelectricity generation

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    International audienceIn this study, a system combining an anaerobic moving-bed biofilm reactor and a microbial fuel cell (MFC) was designed for simultaneous bioelectricity generation and pulp/paper wastewater (PPW) treatment. After 22 days, when hydraulic retention time (HRT) was set at 72 h, ceramsite-added MFC (C-MFC) showed better bioelectricity performance with power density of 94.5 mW/m2 and internal resistance of 35.7 Ω, as compared to the control without ceramsite (W-MFC) (56.1 mW/m2, 54.3 Ω). Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of C-MFC and W-MFC were 65.6% and 51.3%, respectively. The C-MFC demonstrated its superior electrochemical performance compared to the W-MFC

    Can a holistic view facilitate the development of intelligent traditional Chinese medicine? A survey

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    Intelligent traditional Chinese medicine (ITCM) is an emerging interdisciplinary subject. It aims to efficiently and precisely promote the prevention and treatment of diseases and health management in Chinese medicine clinical practice via the combination of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) fundamentals and artificial intelligence technologies. Presently, it is experiencing dramatic growth in recent years. On the one hand, a holistic view, as a crucial philosophy in the theory of TCM, will be guiding the development of ITCM. On the other hand, a comprehensive discussion of the benefits of such a holistic view of ITCM is lacking. To this end, we conduct this survey by introducing the named holistic view first. Then, adaptive learning and field theory will be presented and discussed with respect to their application in ITCM. Ethical issues of ITCM will then be taken into account by human-centered TCM and potentials based on affective computing of ITCM. In addition, we give our opinions and insights on the challenges and open issues regarding the future of ITCM. We hope that this survey article can be a good guide for experts in the relevant fields

    Hyperhomocysteinemia Exaggerates Adventitial Inflammation and Angiotensin II-Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Mice

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    Rationale: A number of epidemiological studies have suggested an association of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), but discrepancies exist. In addition, we lack direct evidence supporting a causal role. Objective: We determined the association and contribution of HHcy to AAA formation. Methods and Results: We first performed a meta-analysis of studies involving 1489 subjects and found a strong association of HHcy and AAA (odds ratio, 7.39). Next, we used angiotensin II-infused male apolipoprotein E-deficient mice and tested whether HHcy contributes to AAA pathogenesis. Homocysteine (Hcy) supplement (1.8 g/L) in drinking water resulted in mild HHcy. Intriguingly, HHcy greatly increased the incidence of angiotensin II-induced AAA and aortic dissection in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (vehicle versus Hcy: 50% versus 100%; P<0.05). Histology indicated HHcy markedly exaggerated aortic adventitial inflammation. Increased levels of proinflammatory interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were preferentially colocalized within adventitial fibroblasts in HHcy plus angiotensin II mice, which suggested the importance of adventitial fibroblasts activation in Hcy-aggravated AAA. Hcy sequentially stimulated adventitial fibroblasts transformation into myofibroblasts, secretion of interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and consequent recruitment of monocytes/macrophages to adventitial fibroblasts, which was abolished by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyliodonium. NADPH oxidase 4, but not other homologs of NADPH oxidase, was significantly upregulated by Hcy in adventitial fibroblasts, whereas NADPH oxidase 4 small interfering RNA silencing diminished Hcy-induced adventitial fibroblasts activation. Finally, folic acid supplement (0.071 mu g/g per day) markedly reduced HHcy-aggravated angiotensin II-induced AAA formation in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Conclusions: HHcy may aggravate AAA formation at least partially via activating adventitial fibroblast NADPH oxidase 4. (Circ Res. 2012;111:1261-1273.)Cardiac & Cardiovascular SystemsHematologyPeripheral Vascular DiseaseSCI(E)PubMed14ARTICLE101261-U9611

    Distribution and associations of intraocular pressure in 7- and 12-year-old chinese children: The anyang childhood eye study

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    Purpose To report the intraocular pressure (IOP) and its association with myopia and other factors in 7 and 12-year-old Chinese children. Methods All children participating in the Anyang Childhood Eye Study underwent non-contact tonometry as well as measurement of central corneal thickness (CCT), axial length, cycloplegic auto-refraction, blood pressure, height and weight. A questionnaire was used to collect other relevant information. Univariable and multivariable analysis were performed to determine the associations of IOP. Results A total of 2760 7-year-old children (95.4%) and 2198 12-year-old children (97.0%) were included. The mean IOP was 13.5±3.1 mmHg in the younger cohort and 15.8±3.5 mmHg in older children (