165 research outputs found

    Biliary ascariasis from a rural setting: a case study.

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    Ascariasis is a common helminthic infestation in Malaysia, particularly in rural settings. Ascariasis lumbricoides normally lives in the upper small bowel without causing symptoms. Complications arise when these worms migrate into the bile duct (biliary ascariasis). A case of biliary ascariasis presenting as biliary colic is described. Patient presented with 2 days duration of right upper quandrant pain at the district hospital. Initial investigations were suggestive of acute cholecystitis and patient was treated with empirical antibiotics. However, due to worsening symptoms, she was transferred to the nearest tertiary setting. The diagnosis of helminthic biliary infestation was established using both ultrasound of the hepatobiliary system (HBS), CT-Scan abdomen and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Endoscopic removal of the worm led to rapid resolution of symptoms and patient was discharged home well

    Does Manual Therapy Provide Additional Benefit To Breathing Retraining In The Management Of Dysfunctional Breathing? A Randomised Controlled Trial

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    Purpose: Dysfunctional breathing (DB) is associated with an abnormal breathing pattern, unexplained breathlessness and significant patient morbidity. Treatment involves breathing retraining through respiratory physiotherapy. Recently, manual therapy (MT) has also been used, but no evidence exists to validate its use. This study sought to investigate whether MT produces additional benefit when compared with breathing retraining alone in patients with DB. Methods: Sixty subjects with primary DB were randomised into either breathing retraining (standard treatment; n¼30) or breathing retraining plus MT (intervention; n¼30) group. Both the groups received standardised respiratory physiotherapy, which included: DB education, breathing retraining, home regimen, and audio disc. Intervention group subjects additionally received MT following further assessment. Data from 57 subjects were analysed. Results: At baseline, standard treatment group subjects were statistically younger (41.7 + 13.5 versus 50.8 + 13.0 years; p¼0.001) with higher Nijmegen scores (38.6 + 9.5 versus 31.5 + 6.9; p¼0.001). However, no significant difference was found between the groups for primary outcome Nijmegen score (95% CI ( 1.1, 6.6) p¼0.162), or any secondary outcomes (Hospital Anxiety & Depression Score, spirometry or exercise tolerance). Conclusion: Breathing retraining is currently the mainstay of treatment for patients with DB. The results of this study suggest MT provides no additional benefit in this patient group.Juliana Burgess, Dr Robert Wilson, Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, and Dr Andy Jones fo

    Prospective study of patients with persistent symptoms of dengue in Brazil

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    Dengue is an arboviral infection clinically recognized as an acute and self-limited disease. Persistence of dengue symptoms is known, but it has been little studied. The aim of this study was to characterize persistent symptoms in 113 patients with dengue followed up clinically and by laboratory testing at a tertiary hospital. Symptoms that persisted for more than 14 days were observed in 61 (54.0%) patients, and six (6.2%) of them had symptoms for 6 months or more. The persistent symptoms identified were myalgia, weakness, hair loss, memory loss, reduced resistance to physical effort, headache, reasoning problems, arthralgia, sleepiness- and emotional lability. The progression to persistent symptoms was significantly associated with hospitalization, older age, more severe disease, the presence of bleeding and comorbidities upon univariate analysis. Upon multivariate analysis, the presence of persistent symptoms continued to be significantly associated only with increased age and dengue with warning signs. The platelet count during the acute phase of the disease was significantly lower in the group with persistent symptoms. In conclusion, the frequency of progression to persistent symptoms in dengue is relevant in patients seen at a tertiary hospital and the persistence of symptoms is more common in patients with dengue with warning signs

    Risk factors for severe hand foot mouth disease in Singapore: a case control study

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    BACKGROUND: Hand foot mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood infection that can potentially lead to serious complications. The aim of this study is to identify risk factors of acquiring severe HFMD in our population. METHODS: We performed a case control study using patients admitted to our hospital from August 2004 to July 2014. Cases were patients with severe HFMD disease while controls were age-matched patients obtained from the same year, in a 2:1 ratio. Data comprising demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms and signs, and lab findings were collected. Conditional univariable logistic regression was performed to determine risk factors for severe disease. RESULTS: A total of 24 cases of severe HFMD were identified and matched with 48 controls. Seventeen (70.8 %) cases had central nervous system complications. Seven (29.2 %) had cardiovascular complications without evidence of myocarditis. One patient died of encephalitis. The overall mortality of severe disease is 4 %. Evidence of hypoperfusion, seizure, altered mentation, meningeal irritation, tachycardia, tachypnea, raised absolute neutrophil count and EV-A71 (Enterovirus A71) positivity were significantly associated with a severe course of HFMD. CONCLUSION: In managing children with HFMD, physicians should consider these factors to help identify patients at risk for severe disease

    Dengue Deaths in Puerto Rico: Lessons Learned from the 2007 Epidemic

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    Dengue is a major public health problem in the tropics and subtropics; an estimated 50 million cases occur annually and 40 percent of the world's population lives in areas with dengue virus (DENV) transmission. Dengue has a wide range of clinical presentations from an undifferentiated acute febrile illness, classic dengue fever, to severe dengue (i.e., dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome). About 5% of patients develop severe dengue, which is more common with second or subsequent infections. No vaccines are available to prevent dengue, and there are no specific antiviral treatments for patients with dengue. However, early recognition of shock and intensive supportive therapy can reduce risk of death from ∼10% to less than 1% among severe dengue cases. Reviewing dengue deaths is one means to identify issues in clinical management. These findings can be used to develop healthcare provider education to minimize dengue morbidity and mortality

    Clinical Relevance and Discriminatory Value of Elevated Liver Aminotransferase Levels for Dengue Severity

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    Dengue is a global public health problem, as the incidence of the disease has reached hyperendemic proportions in recent decades. Infection with dengue can cause acute, febrile illness or severe disease, which can lead to plasma leakage, bleeding, and organ impairment. One of the most prominent clinical characteristics of dengue patients is increased aspartate and alanine aminotransferase liver enzyme levels. The significance of this is uncertain, as it is transient in the majority of cases, and most patients recover uneventfully without liver damage. In this study, we characterized this phenomenon in the context of dengue severity and found that, although liver enzyme levels increased concurrently with dengue severity, they could not sufficiently discriminate between dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever or between non-severe and severe dengue. Therefore clinicians may need to use other parameters to distinguish dengue severity in patients during early illness

    Safety and Immunogenicity Following Administration of a Live, Attenuated Monovalent 2009 H1N1 Influenza Vaccine to Children and Adults in Two Randomized Controlled Trials

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    BACKGROUND: The safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a monovalent intranasal 2009 A/H1N1 live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) were evaluated in children and adults. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies were completed in children (2-17 y) and adults (18-49 y). Subjects were assigned 4:1 to receive 2 doses of H1N1 LAIV or placebo 28 days apart. The primary safety endpoint was fever ≥38.3°C during days 1-8 after the first dose; the primary immunogenicity endpoint was the proportion of subjects experiencing a postdose seroresponse. Solicited symptoms and adverse events were recorded for 14 days after each dose and safety data were collected for 180 days post-final dose. In total, 326 children (H1N1 LAIV, n = 261; placebo, n = 65) and 300 adults (H1N1 LAIV, n = 240; placebo, n = 60) were enrolled. After dose 1, fever ≥38.3°C occurred in 4 (1.5%) pediatric vaccine recipients and 1 (1.5%) placebo recipient (rate difference, 0%; 95% CI: -6.4%, 3.1%). No adults experienced fever following dose 1. Seroresponse rates in children (H1N1 LAIV vs. placebo) were 11.1% vs. 6.3% after dose 1 (rate difference, 4.8%; 95% CI: -9.6%, 13.8%) and 32.0% vs. 14.5% after dose 2 (rate difference, 17.5%; 95% CI: 5.5%, 27.1%). Seroresponse rates in adults were 6.1% vs. 0% (rate difference, 6.1%; 95% CI: -5.6%, 12.6%) and 14.9% vs. 5.6% (rate difference, 9.3%; 95% CI: -0.8%, 16.3%) after dose 1 and dose 2, respectively. Solicited symptoms after dose 1 (H1N1 LAIV vs. placebo) occurred in 37.5% vs. 32.3% of children and 41.7% vs. 31.7% of adults. Solicited symptoms occurred less frequently after dose 2 in adults and children. No vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In subjects aged 2 to 49 years, two doses of H1N1 LAIV have a safety and immunogenicity profile similar to other previously studied and efficacious formulations of seasonal trivalent LAIV. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00946101, NCT00945893

    The changing seroepidemiology of enterovirus 71 infection among children and adolescents in Singapore

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused recurrent epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease among children in Singapore. Between August 2008 and July 2010, we conducted a survey to estimate the seroprevalence of EV71 infection among children and adolescents aged 1-17 years. We compared our EV71 seroepidemiologic findings with a previous study conducted in 1996-1997.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>The survey involved the prospective collection of 1,200 residual sera from Singapore residents aged 1-17 years in two hospitals. Neutralizing antibodies to EV71 were detected by the microneutralization test. The geometric mean titer (GMT) of EV71 antibodies and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and compared by age groups. Statistical significance was taken as <it>P </it>< 0.05.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The overall EV71 antibody prevalence was 26.9% (95% CI: 24.5-29.5%). It increased significantly from 14.3% in children aged 1-6 years to 27.8% in those aged 7-12 years, and reached 38.8% in adolescents aged 13-17 years. The seroconversion rate differed by about 12% between the consecutive age groups. The GMT of EV71 antibodies was higher among primary school children aged 7-12 years in our study than that among the 6-12 year age group in the 1996-1997 study.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Higher antibody titers were observed in children aged 1-6 years than those in the other two age groups, indicating that most of the infections had been acquired during early childhood. EV71 infection is common among children and adolescents in Singapore, with 39% infected by the time they are in secondary school (13-17 years of age).</p

    Inhibition of Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) Infections by a Novel Antiviral Peptide Derived from EV-71 Capsid Protein VP1

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    Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is the main causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). In recent years, EV-71 infections were reported to cause high fatalities and severe neurological complications in Asia. Currently, no effective antiviral or vaccine is available to treat or prevent EV-71 infection. In this study, we have discovered a synthetic peptide which could be developed as a potential antiviral for inhibition of EV-71. Ninety five synthetic peptides (15-mers) overlapping the entire EV-71 capsid protein, VP1, were chemically synthesized and tested for antiviral properties against EV-71 in human Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells. One peptide, SP40, was found to significantly reduce cytopathic effects of all representative EV-71 strains from genotypes A, B and C tested, with IC50 values ranging from 6–9.3 µM in RD cells. The in vitro inhibitory effect of SP40 exhibited a dose dependent concentration corresponding to a decrease in infectious viral particles, total viral RNA and the levels of VP1 protein. The antiviral activity of SP40 peptide was not restricted to a specific cell line as inhibition of EV-71 was observed in RD, HeLa, HT-29 and Vero cells. Besides inhibition of EV-71, it also had antiviral activities against CV-A16 and poliovirus type 1 in cell culture. Mechanism of action studies suggested that the SP40 peptide was not virucidal but was able to block viral attachment to the RD cells. Substitutions of arginine and lysine residues with alanine in the SP40 peptide at positions R3A, R4A, K5A and R13A were found to significantly decrease antiviral activities, implying the importance of positively charged amino acids for the antiviral activities. The data demonstrated the potential and feasibility of SP40 as a broad spectrum antiviral agent against EV-71