142 research outputs found

    Dissipation due to tunneling two-level systems in gold nanomechanical resonators

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    We present measurements of the dissipation and frequency shift in nanomechanical gold resonators at temperatures down to 10 mK. The resonators were fabricated as doubly-clamped beams above a GaAs substrate and actuated magnetomotively. Measurements on beams with frequencies 7.95 MHz and 3.87 MHz revealed that from 30 mK to 500 mK the dissipation increases with temperature as T0.5T^{0.5}, with saturation occurring at higher temperatures. The relative frequency shift of the resonators increases logarithmically with temperature up to at least 400 mK. Similarities with the behavior of bulk amorphous solids suggest that the dissipation in our resonators is dominated by two-level systems

    Evidence for the role of normal-state electrons in nanoelectromechanical damping mechanisms at very low temperatures

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    We report on experiments performed at low temperatures on aluminum covered silicon nanoelectromechanical resonators. The substantial difference observed between the mechanical dissipation in the normal and superconducting states measured within the same device unambiguously demonstrates the importance of normal-state electrons in the damping mechanism. The dissipative component becomes vanishingly small at very low temperatures in the superconducting state, leading to exceptional values for the quality factor of such small silicon structures. A critical discussion is given within the framework of the standard tunneling model

    Nonlinear modal coupling in a high-stress doubly-clamped nanomechanical resonator

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    We present results from a study of the nonlinear intermodal coupling between different flexural vibrational modes of a single high-stress, doubly-clamped silicon nitride nanomechanical beam. The measurements were carried out at 100 mK and the beam was actuated using the magnetomotive technique. We observed the nonlinear behavior of the modes individually and also measured the coupling between them by driving the beam at multiple frequencies. We demonstrate that the different modes of the resonator are coupled to each other by the displacement induced tension in the beam, which also leads to the well known Duffing nonlinearity in doubly-clamped beams.Comment: 15 pages, 7 figure

    Slippage and boundary layer probed in an almost ideal gas by a nanomechanical oscillator

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    We have measured the interaction between 4^4He gas at 4.2 ~K and a high-quality nano-electro-mechanical string device for its first 3 symmetric modes (resonating at 2.2 ~MHz, 6.7 ~MHz and 11 ~MHz with quality factor Q>0.1Q > 0.1 million) over almost 6 orders of magnitude in pressure. This fluid can be viewed as the best experimental implementation of an almost-ideal monoatomic and inert gas which properties are tabulated. The experiment ranges from high pressure where the flow is of laminar Stokes-type presenting slippage, down to very low pressures where the flow is molecular. In the molecular regime, when the mean-free-path is of the order of the distance between the suspended nano-mechanical probe and the bottom of the trench we resolve for the first time the signature of the boundary (Knudsen) layer onto the measured dissipation. Our results are discussed in the framework of the most recent theories investigating boundary effects in fluids (both analytic approaches and Monte-Carlo DSMC simulations)

    Audio mixing in a tri-port nano-electro-mechanical device

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    We report on experiments performed on a cantilever-based tri-port nano-electro-mechanical (NEMS) device. Two ports are used for actuation and detection through the magnetomotive scheme, while the third port is a capacitively coupled gate electrode. By applying a low frequency voltage signal on the gate, we demonstrate mixing in the mechanical response of the device, even for {\it low magnetomotive drives, without resorting to conduction measurements through the NEMS}. The technique can thus be used in particular in the linear regime, as an alternative to nonlinear mixing, for normal conducting devices. An analytic theory is presented reproducing the data without free parameter

    Insertion of EGFP into the replicase gene of Semliki Forest virus results in a novel, genetically stable marker virus

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    Alphavirus-based vector and replicon systems have been extensively used experimentally and are likely to be used in human and animal medicine. Whilst marker genes can be inserted easily under the control of a duplicated subgenomic promoter, these constructs are often genetically unstable. Here, a novel alphavirus construct is described in which an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) marker gene is inserted into the virus replicase open reading frame between nsP3 and nsP4, flanked by nsP2 protease-recognition sites. This construct has correct processing of the replicase polyprotein, produces viable virus and expresses detectable EGFP fluorescence upon infection of cultured cells and cells of the mouse brain. In comparison to parental virus, the marker virus has an approximately 1 h delay in virus RNA and infectious virus production. Passage of the marker virus in vitro and in vivo demonstrates good genetic stability. Insertion of different markers into this novel construct has potential for various applications
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