147 research outputs found

    Regional Learning Networks in Medium-Tech Technologies and European Integration

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    The paper aims at investigating the transfer of tacit knowledge both at the regional and at the interregional level and it focuses on the factors and forms of the processes of interactive learning between small and medium size in medium technology sectors. The analysis proceeds from the contributions of four strands of literature, focusing on economics of agglomeration, cognitive economics, industrial strategic alliances and governance in a knowledge economy. While industrial economics interprets technology spill-over at the local level as an automatic and chaotic process allowed by geographical proximity of the firms, regional economics identifies different specific types of flows and networks, which link together in an organized way the various firms and other private and public actors within a given regional innovation system. Cognitive economics may bring a significant contribution, as it considers the relevance for economics of human cognitive aspects and it discovers the key role in the creation of new ideas of selected factors, such as the stimulus by changes in the external environment, the process of “neurognosis†or negative reaction aiming to the protection of the internal integrity, the search process constrained by cognitive proximity, the success in pattern making and the achievement of consistency and compatability, the process of “exaptation†or reconversion leading to path-dependency, the creation of new connections and routines and institutions, which allows to save the limited cognitive capacity of individuals and organizations. This theoretical framework in the analysis of the processes of knowledge creation may be schematically represented through the model of “Territorial Knowledge Managementâ€, which aims at promoting the interactive learning processes within the regional innovation systems and focuses on a selected list of knowledge levers, such as: market orientation, accessibility, receptiveness, common identity, creativity and governance. On the base of these theoretical concepts and tools, the paper analyses various case studies of firms embedded in different industrial clusters in Europe, focusing on the forms of the process of interactive learning and innovation between the various regional actors. Finally, the paper attempts to derive from that analysis useful indications for the possible extension of knowledge and innovation networks at the interregional and international level and for decreasing the regional divide in a modern knowledge economy. The research has been undertaken within the framework of the project: “IKINET – International Knowledge and Innovation Network†(EU FP6, N° CIT2-CT-2004-506242). Keywords: knowledge creation, interactive learning processes, industrial clusters, innovation policies, European integration, medium technology sectors, small and medium size firms.

    The intensity of competition after patent expiry in pharmaceuticals. A cross-country analysis

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    This paper shows that the relationships between the dynamics of drug priees, patent expiry, and competition by multisource drugs vary significantly across countries. A clear distinction seems to emerge. On the one side, systems that rely on market based competition (particularly the US) promote a clear distinction between firms that act as innovators and firms that act as imitators after patent expiry. Original products enjoy premium prices under patent protection, and face fierce price competition after patent expiry. On the contrary, systems that rely on administered prices (particularly France and Italy) nurture strategies of pre-emptive brand proliferation and horizontal differentiation by imitative brand name products, well before patent expiry. Our work confirms that that systems that rely on administered prices have tended to stifle price competition, to protect less efficient companies, and to encourage strategies of incremental innovation and imitation

    Global Competitiveness in Pharmaceuticals: A European Perspective

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    The report examines the competitive position of the European pharmaceutical companies and industries, and compares them with the pharmaceutical companies and industries in other parts of the world, particularly the US. Over the last two decades, the industry has experienced some important structural changes, mainly driven by technological and institutional shocks that have affected all the stages of its value chain. In turn, this has led to changes in firms' organisation and in market structure, within domestic markets, regionally, and globally. The main finding of the report is that the European industry has indeed been losing competitiveness as compared to the USA, although there are large differences and trends across European countries. As a whole, Europe is lagging behind in its ability to generate, organise, and sustain innovation processes that are increasingly expensive and organisationally complex. In fact, one conclusion of the report is that the relative position of the US as a locus of innovation in pharmaceuticals has increased over the past decade compared to Europe. All in all, the report claims that the competitiveness of the European pharmaceutical industry is negatively affected by the persistence of insufficient degrees of competition and institutional integration, still centred on domestic and fragmented health care and research systems. Four sets of variables have been found to be relevant as sources of competitiveness and growth in pharmaceuticals: 1) The size and the structure of the biomedical education and research systems; 2) Some basic institutions governing labor markets for skilled researchers and managers, as well as corporate governance and finance; 3) Intellectual property rights and patent law; 4) The institutional settings in the regulation of health care systems and, moreover, the nature and intensity of competition on the final market. The data analysed in this report come from OECD, Eurostat, the European Patent Office, IMS Health and PHID (PHarmaceutical Industry Database) at the University of Siena

    Global Competitiveness in Pharmaceuticals: A European Perspective

    Get PDF
    The report examines the competitive position of the European pharmaceutical companies and industries, and compares them with the pharmaceutical companies and industries in other parts of the world, particularly the US. Over the last two decades, the industry has experienced some important structural changes, mainly driven by technological and institutional shocks that have affected all the stages of its value chain. In turn, this has led to changes in firms' organisation and in market structure, within domestic markets, regionally, and globally. The main finding of the report is that the European industry has indeed been losing competitiveness as compared to the USA, although there are large differences and trends across European countries. As a whole, Europe is lagging behind in its ability to generate, organise, and sustain innovation processes that are increasingly expensive and organisationally complex. In fact, one conclusion of the report is that the relative position of the US as a locus of innovation in pharmaceuticals has increased over the past decade compared to Europe. All in all, the report claims that the competitiveness of the European pharmaceutical industry is negatively affected by the persistence of insufficient degrees of competition and institutional integration, still centred on domestic and fragmented health care and research systems. Four sets of variables have been found to be relevant as sources of competitiveness and growth in pharmaceuticals: 1) The size and the structure of the biomedical education and research systems; 2) Some basic institutions governing labor markets for skilled researchers and managers, as well as corporate governance and finance; 3) Intellectual property rights and patent law; 4) The institutional settings in the regulation of health care systems and, moreover, the nature and intensity of competition on the final market. The data analysed in this report come from OECD, Eurostat, the European Patent Office, IMS Health and PHID (PHarmaceutical Industry Database) at the University of Siena.Pharmaceutical Industry, R&D, Innovation, Competitiveness

    FROM GIBRAT'S LEGACY TO GIBRAT'S FALLACY. A BAYESIAN APPROACH TO STUDY THE GROWTH OF FIRMS

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    We aim at testing Gibrat's Law, a building block of the corporate growth dynamics. Using a Bayesian statistical framework that nests previous approaches, we provide evidence against Gibrat's law on average, within or across industries. Notwithstanding, data show only weak evidence of mean reversion, i.e. initial larger firms do not grow relatively slower than smaller firms. Moreover, differences in growth rates and in size steady state are persistent and firm-specific. Previous results confirming Gibrat's argument are likely to be incorrect being based on models that do not exploit appropriately all information contained in a panel data set.Gibrat's Law; Panel Data; Heterogeneity; Bayesian Estimation
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