135 research outputs found

    Three clinical cases of DSM-IV mania symptoms in preschoolers

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    Preschool onset attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Course and predictors of stability over 24 months

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    OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the course of ADHD over 24 months in a preschool population. METHOD: n=48 preschoolers with ADHD, aged 3.0-5.11 years, subjects included in a larger sample of preschoolers with depression and other disorders (n=306) were comprehensively assessed at 3 annual time points over 24 months in a prospective longitudinal follow-up study. RESULTS: Baseline diagnoses of preschool MDD, ODD, and CD were risk factors for ADHD diagnosis over 24 months in this preschool population. Among older preschoolers and after controlling for key demographic variables, ADHD predicted later ADHD diagnosis, along with other significant risk factors - baseline diagnosis of ODD, and/or family history of disruptive disorders, and stressful life events. CONCLUSIONS: ADHD showed greater homotypic continuity at later rather than earlier preschool ages. Other disruptive comorbidities also emerged as key predictors of stable ADHD course. Study findings may help to inform which preschool ADHD populations to target for early intervention. Larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these findings and to further explore the stability, course, and predictors of outcome of preschool onset ADHD

    Early socioemotional competence, psychopathology, and latent class profiles of reparative prosocial behaviors from preschool through early adolescence

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    Children who have difficulty using reparative behaviors following transgressions display a wide range of poorer social and emotional outcomes. Despite the importance of reparative skills, no study has charted the developmental trajectory of these behaviors or pinpointed predictors of poorer reparative abilities. To address these gaps in the literature, this study applied growth mixture modeling to parent reports of children\u27s reparative behaviors (N = 230) in a 9-year longitudinal data set spanning from preschool to early adolescence. Three distinct trajectories of reparative behaviors were found: a low-stable, moderate-stable, and high-stable latent class. Poorer emotion understanding, social withdrawal, social rejection, and maladaptive guilt in the preschool period predicted membership in a low-stable reparative trajectory. Externalizing diagnoses, particularly conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder, also predicted membership in a low-stable reparative trajectory. Preschool-onset depression predicted membership in a low-stable reparative trajectory through high levels of maladaptive guilt. The findings from this study suggest that socioemotional deficits in the preschool period set children on longstanding trajectories of impaired reparative responding. Thus, emotion understanding, social functioning, maladaptive guilt, and early psychiatric symptoms should be targeted in early preventive interventions

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in preschool children: an investigation of validation based on visual attention performance

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    OBJECTIVES: The present study compared the performance of preschoolers who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4(th) edition (DSM-IV) criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to those who did not meet these criteria on a test of visual attention. The aim was to investigate whether attentional impairments in preschoolers with DSM-IV ADHD could be detected, informing the nosology of preschool ADHD. METHODS: A demographically diverse sample of n = 304 preschoolers, aged 3.0–5.11 years, was separated into two diagnostic groups: Those who met DSM-IV ADHD criteria and those who did not. Subtypes of ADHD were also examined. Parametric and nonparametric analyses were used to examine performance scores on accuracy, including errors of omission and commission. The sample was stratified into 3, 4-, and 5-year-old age groups. RESULTS: Overall ADHD but not subtype-specific ADHD was associated with poor performance accuracy in the 4-year-old age group after controlling for gender and age. CONCLUSIONS: Attentional impairments detected only in the 4-year-old age group suggest that DSM-IV ADHD criteria are useful and valid at this age. Study findings suggest modification to the DSM criteria may be needed for children younger than 4 and that further investigation of this issue using performance-based measures is now warranted

    Environmental conditions to promote healthy childhood brain/behavioral development: Informing early preventive interventions for delivery in routine care

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    Environmental experiences early in life have strong and enduring consequences for cognitive, emotional, and neurobiological development and related physical and mental health trajectories. The powerful influence of early caregiver nurturance and stimulation on promoting positive neurodevelopmental outcomes has been demonstrated across species. These findings elucidate the environmental conditions known to facilitate healthy neurodevelopment and underscore the potential for modifiable psychosocial factors in the environment to be harnessed to inform early preventive interventions to promote health and adaptive development. A framework for early preventive interventions to enhance nurturing and responsive caregiving for implementation during early sensitive periods of brain development delivered within existing health or educational infrastructures is proposed. Emotional development during sensitive periods is an important, under-recognized, and abundantly modifiable predictor of mental and physical health outcomes that warrants investment of resources and integration of interventions into public health infrastructure for children worldwide. Future studies are needed to further clarify whether and when sensitive periods are present for key developmental domains to inform the optimal timing and targets of these interventions. Numerous available empirically supported early interventions may be modified and applied in briefer and more feasible modalities of delivery to broader populations of developing children. As well established in growth and development across species, essential environmental inputs that are particularly important at specified developmental periods facilitate optimal growth trajectories. Such principles hold great potential in application to early child neurodevelopment to facilitate a thriving and resilient human population

    Association of timing of adverse childhood experiences and caregiver support with regionally specific brain development in adolescents

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    Importance: Few data are available to inform the associations and timing of the associations between adversity, caregiver support, and brain outcomes. Consideration of timing has important public health implications to inform more precise prevention strategies. Objective: To evaluate the timing and regional specificity of the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and caregiver support to structural development of limbic and striatal brain regions in middle childhood and adolescence. Design, Setting, and Participants: This 15-year developmental, neuroimaging cohort study included 211 children and their caregivers screened from day care centers and preschools in the St Louis, Missouri, metropolitan area during the preschool period, with an additional 4 waves of neuroimaging at school age through adolescence from November 14, 2007, to August 29, 2017. The cohort was oversampled for preschoolers with elevated symptoms of depression using a brief screener. Data analysis was performed from March 19, 2019, to July 26, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Volumes in adolescence and developmental trajectories of volumes of the amygdala, hippocampus, caudate, subgenual cingulate, and insula during 4 waves of scanning; ACEs and observed caregiver support at preschool and school age; and volumes of amygdala, hippocampus, insula, and subgenual cingulate during 4 waves of scanning. Results: A total of 211 children (107 [50.7%] male) completed at least 1 scan. At preschool (mean [SD] age, 5.5 [0.8] years), ACE data were available for 164 children (84 [51.2%] male) and maternal support data for 155 children; at school age (mean [SD], 8.3 [1.2] years), ACE data were available for 172 children and maternal support data for 146 children. Unique patterns of the association between ACEs and support were found, with an association between the interaction of preschool ACEs and school-age support and the development of the hippocampus (t = -2.27; P = .02) and amygdala (t = -2.12; P = .04). A buffering hypothesis was not confirmed because high caregiver support was more strongly associated with the development of these regions only in the context of low ACEs. In contrast, preschool ACEs (t = -2.30; P = .02) and support (t = 2.59; P = .01) had independent associations with the development of the caudate. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings suggest that there are unique regional associations of support and adversity with key brain structures important for emotional regulation. Results may inform the timing and potential targets of preventive action for the range of poor developmental outcomes

    Neural activation associated with the cognitive emotion regulation of sadness in healthy children

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    AbstractWhen used effectively, cognitive reappraisal of distressing events is a highly adaptive cognitive emotion regulation (CER) strategy, with impairments in cognitive reappraisal associated with greater risk for psychopathology. Despite extensive literature examining the neural correlates of cognitive reappraisal in healthy and psychiatrically ill adults, there is a dearth of data to inform the neural bases of CER in children, a key gap in the literature necessary to map the developmental trajectory of cognitive reappraisal. In this fMRI study, psychiatrically healthy schoolchildren were instructed to use cognitive reappraisal to modulate their emotional reactions and responses of negative affect after viewing sad photos. Consistent with the adult literature, when actively engaged in reappraisal compared to passively viewing sad photos, children showed increased activation in the vlPFC, dlPFC, and dmPFC as well as in parietal and temporal lobe regions. When children used cognitive reappraisal to minimize their experience of negative affect after viewing sad stimuli they exhibited dampened amygdala responses. Results are discussed in relation to the importance of identifying and characterizing neural processes underlying adaptive CER strategies in typically developing children in order to understand how these systems go awry and relate to the risk and occurrence of affective disorders

    Evidence for dissociable cognitive and neural pathways from poverty versus maltreatment to deficits in emotion regulation

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    Poverty and threat exposure (TE) predict deficits in emotion regulation (ER). Effective cognitive ER (i.e., reappraisal) may be supported by: (1) cognitive processes implicated in generating and implementing cognitive reappraisal, supported by activation in brain regions involved in cognitive control (e.g., frontal, insular, and parietal cortices) and (2) emotion processing and reactivity, involving identification, encoding, and maintenance of emotional states and related variation in brain activity of regions involved in emotional reactivity (i.e., amygdala). Poverty is associated with deficits in cognitive control, and TE with alterations in emotion processing and reactivity. Our goal was to identify dissociable emotional and cognitive pathways to ER deficits from poverty and TE. Measures of cognitive ability, emotional processing and reactivity, ER, and neural activity during a sadness ER task, were examined from a prospective longitudinal study of youth at risk for depression (n = 139). Both cognitive ability and left anterior insula extending into the frontal operculum activity during a sadness reappraisal task mediated the relationship between poverty and ER. Emotion processing/reactivity didn\u27t mediate the relationship of TE to ER. Findings support a cognitive pathway from poverty to ER deficits. They also underscore the importance of dissociating mechanisms contributing to ER impairments from adverse early childhood experiences

    Parenting practices in pregnancy smokers compared to non smokers

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    BACKGROUND: The present investigation compared parenting practices in a sample of preschoolers whose mothers reported smoking during pregnancy versus those who did not. METHODS: A sample of n = 216, 3.0- to 5.11-year-old children, participants in an ongoing longitudinal study, was separated into those reportedly exposed to smoking in utero and those who were not. Parenting practices were compared between the two groups, using T-tests and exact logistic regressions. Multiple linear regressions and multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine the association between smoking status and parenting, controlling for variables also known to be associated with parenting practices. RESULTS: Current study findings suggest that smoking during pregnancy is associated with harsh parenting practices. CONCLUSIONS: Study results highlight the possible role of parenting in disruptive outcomes well-known in toddlers exposed to nicotine in utero and have implications for targeting early interventions in these populations
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