1,702 research outputs found

    Crystal structure of tubulin folding cofactor A from Arabidopsis thaliana and its β-tubulin binding characterization

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    AbstractMicrotubules are composed of polymerized α/β-tubulin heterodimers. Biogenesis of assembly-competent tubulin dimers is a complex multistep process that requires sequential actions of distinct molecular chaperones and cofactors. Tubulin folding cofactor A (TFCA), which captures β-tubulin during the folding pathway, has been identified in many organisms. Here, we report the crystal structure of Arabidopsis thaliana TFC A (KIESEL, KIS), which forms a monomeric three-helix bundle. The functional binding analysis demonstrated that KIS interacts with β-tubulin in plant. Furthermore, mutagenesis studies indicated that the α-helical regions of KIS participate in β-tubulin binding. Unlike the budding yeast TFC A, the two loop regions of KIS are not required for this interaction suggesting a distinct binding mechanism of TFC A to β-tubulin in plants.Structured summaryMINT-7968902, MINT-7968915, MINT-7968951, MINT-7968966: KIS (uniprotkb:O04350) physically interacts (MI:0915) with Tub9 (uniprotkb:P29517) by anti tag coimmunoprecipitation (MI:0007)MINT-7968928: KIS (uniprotkb:O04350) and Tub9 (uniprotkb:P29517) physically interact (MI:0915) by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (MI:0809

    Catechol-chitosan/polyacrylamide hydrogel wound dressing for regulating local inflammation

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    Chronic wounds and the accompanying inflammation are ongoing challenges in clinical treatment. They are usually accompanied by low pH and high oxidative stress environments, limiting cell growth and proliferation. Ordinary medical gauze has limited therapeutic effects on chronic wounds, and there is active research to develop new wound dressings. The chitosan hydrogel could be widely used in biomedical science with great biocompatibility, but the low mechanical properties limit its development. This work uses polyacrylamide to prepare double-network (DN) hydrogels based on bioadhesive catechol-chitosan hydrogels. Cystamine and N, N′-Bis(acryloyl)cystamine, which can be cross-linking agents with disulfide bonds to prepare redox-responsive DN hydrogels and pH-responsive nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by acetalized cyclodextrin (ACD) are used to intelligently release drugs against chronic inflammation microenvironments. The addition of catechol groups and ACD-NPs loaded with the Resolvin E1 (RvE1), promotes cell adhesion and regulates the inflammatory response at the wound site. The preparation of the DN hydrogel in this study can be used to treat and regulate the inflammatory microenvironment of chronic wounds accurately. It provides new ideas for using inflammation resolving factor loaded in DN hydrogel of good biocompatibility with enhanced mechanical properties to intelligent regulate the wound inflammation and promote the wound repaired

    Shoggoth: Towards Efficient Edge-Cloud Collaborative Real-Time Video Inference via Adaptive Online Learning

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    This paper proposes Shoggoth, an efficient edge-cloud collaborative architecture, for boosting inference performance on real-time video of changing scenes. Shoggoth uses online knowledge distillation to improve the accuracy of models suffering from data drift and offloads the labeling process to the cloud, alleviating constrained resources of edge devices. At the edge, we design adaptive training using small batches to adapt models under limited computing power, and adaptive sampling of training frames for robustness and reducing bandwidth. The evaluations on the realistic dataset show 15%-20% model accuracy improvement compared to the edge-only strategy and fewer network costs than the cloud-only strategy.Comment: Accepted by 60th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC2023

    Increase in neuroexcitability of unmyelinated C-type vagal ganglion neurons during initial postnatal development of visceral afferent reflex functions

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    BACKGROUND: Baroreflex gain increase up closely to adult level during initial postnatal weeks, and any interruption within this period will increase the risk of cardiovascular problems in later of life span. We hypothesize that this short period after birth might be critical for postnatal development of vagal ganglion neurons (VGNs). METHODS: To evaluate neuroexcitability evidenced by discharge profiles and coordinate changes, ion currents were collected from identified A- and C-type VGNs at different developmental stages using whole-cell patch clamping. RESULTS: C-type VGNs underwent significant age-dependent transition from single action potential (AP) to repetitive discharge. The coordinate changes between TTX-S and TTX-R Na(+) currents were also confirmed and well simulated by computer modeling. Although 4-AP or iberiotoxin age dependently increased firing frequency, AP duration was prolonged in an opposite fashion, which paralleled well with postnatal changes in 4-AP- and iberiotoxin-sensitive K(+) current activity, whereas less developmental changes were verified in A-types. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate for the first time that the neuroexcitability of C-type VGNs increases significantly compared with A-types within initial postnatal weeks evidenced by AP discharge profiles and coordinate ion channel changes, which explain, at least in part, that initial postnatal weeks may be crucial for ontogenesis in visceral afferent reflex function