87 research outputs found

    Enhanced Post-Learning Memory Consolidation is Influenced by Arousal Predisposition and Emotion Regulation but Not By Stimulus Valence or Arousal

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    Emotionally arousing stimuli are more memorable than neutral ones and arousal induced after learning enhances later retrieval. However, there is as yet little study of how stimulus qualities might interact with induced arousal and how individual differences might influence the modulation of memory. Thus, the present study examined the effect of arousal induced after learning on memory for words that varied in both arousal and valence quality, as well as the influence of three individual differences factors that are known to influence arousal response: emotional suppression, emotional reappraisal, and arousal predisposition. Seventy-six adults (57 female) viewed and rated 60 words that normatively ranged from high to low in arousal and valence. Ten minutes later, they viewed a 3-min comedic or neutral video clip. Arousal induced after learning enhanced 1-week delayed memory, spanning the lengthy task without preference for word type or serial position, contrasting with reports of arousal effects interacting with stimulus qualities. Importantly, being predisposed to arousal led to greater enhancement of long-term memory modulation, while the use of emotional reappraisal, which reduces arousal responding, inhibited the ability of arousal to induce memory enhancement. Thus, individual differences that influence arousal responding can contribute to or interfere with memory modulation

    Anomalous Aortic Origin of a Coronary Artery With an Interarterial Course Should Family Screening Be Routine?

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    ObjectivesWe sought to present cases of familial occurrence of anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery with an interarterial course (AAOCA) to determine if it would alter our current screening and management recommendations.BackgroundAnomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery with an interarterial course is a rare congenital anomaly that carries an increased risk of sudden death in children and young adults. There are no reports in the literature of familial AAOCA in the pediatric population.MethodsIn preparation for a multi-institutional prospective study evaluating patient management and surgical outcomes in children and young adults with AAOCA, a questionnaire was sent to multiple pediatric institutions in North and South America. Several respondents indicated caring for families with more than 1 member with AAOCA. These patients were identified and charts were retrospectively reviewed.ResultsWe identified 5 families in which a child was diagnosed with AAOCA and another family member was subsequently identified through screening with echocardiography. The odds of this occurring are significantly greater than what would be expected by chance. All identified by screening were asymptomatic and had anomalous right coronary artery despite 2 of the 5 index cases having anomalous left coronary artery.ConclusionsIt is possible that there is a genetic link for AAOCA. Future research into this is warranted. Due to the potential risk of myocardial ischemia and sudden death associated with AAOCA, screening first-degree relatives for AAOCA using transthoracic echocardiography would be the prudent approach to potentially prevent a sudden catastrophic event

    Influence of breast feeding on subsequent reactivity to a related renal allograft

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    In a previous report the hypothesis that exposure of the neonate to maternal allogeneic cells via the process of breast feeding would result in hyporesponsiveness to a subsequent maternal donor-related renal transplant was examined. Support for this hypothesis was obtained after correlating results of maternal donor-related renal transplantation with the breast feeding status of the transplant recipient. In the present report this observation has been expanded upon and it was asked if a history of breast feeding was associated with improved results in a different patient population (HLA semi-identical sibling donors). Breast-fed patients showed dramatic improvements in graft function rates compared to non-breast-fed counterparts at all intervals studied (P [les] 0.001). Because a history of breast feeding correlated with improved results after sibling donor as well as maternal donor transplantation, it was concluded that the breast feeding effect is not entirely specific for maternal antigens. These observations underscore the importance of breast feeding as a variable in clinical-related renal transplantation.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/24730/1/0000152.pd

    Optimizing the procedure of grain nutrient predictions in barley via hyperspectral imaging

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    Hyperspectral imaging enables researchers and plant breeders to analyze various traits of interest like nutritional value in high throughput. In order to achieve this, the optimal design of a reliable calibration model, linking the measured spectra with the investigated traits, is necessary. In the present study we investigated the impact of different regression models, calibration set sizes and calibration set compositions on prediction performance. For this purpose, we analyzed concentrations of six globally relevant grain nutrients of the wild barley population HEB-YIELD as case study. The data comprised 1,593 plots, grown in 2015 and 2016 at the locations Dundee and Halle, which have been entirely analyzed through traditional laboratory methods and hyperspectral imaging. The results indicated that a linear regression model based on partial least squares outperformed neural networks in this particular data modelling task. There existed a positive relationship between the number of samples in a calibration model and prediction performance, with a local optimum at a calibration set size of ~40% of the total data. The inclusion of samples from several years and locations could clearly improve the predictions of the investigated nutrient traits at small calibration set sizes. It should be stated that the expansion of calibration models with additional samples is only useful as long as they are able to increase trait variability. Models obtained in a certain environment were only to a limited extent transferable to other environments. They should therefore be successively upgraded with new calibration data to enable a reliable prediction of the desired traits. The presented results will assist the design and conceptualization of future hyperspectral imaging projects in order to achieve reliable predictions. It will in general help to establish practical applications of hyperspectral imaging systems, for instance in plant breeding concepts

    In Situ-Targeting of Dendritic Cells with Donor-Derived Apoptotic Cells Restrains Indirect Allorecognition and Ameliorates Allograft Vasculopathy

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    Chronic allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is an atheromatous-like lesion that affects vessels of transplanted organs. It is a component of chronic rejection that conventional immuno-suppression fails to prevent, and is a major cause of graft loss. Indirect allo-recognition through T cells and allo-Abs are critical during CAV pathogenesis. We tested whether the indirect allo-response and its impact on CAV is down-regulated by in situ-delivery of donor Ags to recipient's dendritic cells (DCs) in lymphoid organs in a pro-tolerogenic fashion, through administration of donor splenocytes undergoing early apoptosis. Following systemic injection, donor apoptotic cells were internalized by splenic CD11chi CD8α+ and CD8− DCs, but not by CD11cint plasmacytoid DCs. Those DCs that phagocytosed apoptotic cells in vivo remained quiescent, resisted ex vivo-maturation, and presented allo-Ag for up to 3 days. Administration of donor apoptotic splenocytes, unlike cells alive, (i) promoted deletion, FoxP3 expression and IL-10 secretion, and decreased IFN-γ-release in indirect pathway CD4 T cells; and (ii) reduced cross-priming of anti-donor CD8 T cells in vivo. Targeting recipient's DCs with donor apoptotic cells reduced significantly CAV in a fully-mismatched aortic allograft model. The effect was donor specific, dependent on the physical characteristics of the apoptotic cells, and was associated to down-regulation of the indirect type-1 T cell allo-response and secretion of allo-Abs, when compared to recipients treated with donor cells alive or necrotic. Down-regulation of indirect allo-recognition through in situ-delivery of donor-Ag to recipient's quiescent DCs constitutes a promising strategy to prevent/ameliorate indirect allorecognition and CAV

    Efficacy of coping through emotional approach for a working population

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    It has often been argued that contending with one\u27s emotions is maladaptive. However, emotional approach coping (EAC; active processing and/or expression of emotion) has been shown to benefit those dealing with stressors such as chronic pain, infertility and breast cancer. This study sought to extend this research by investigating relationship between EAC and health when emotional approach is employed as a general long-term strategy, not necessarily relative to a specific stressor. This cross-sectional investigation hypothesized that greater general use of EAC would predict better mental and physical health in a working population. It was also hypothesized that EAC subscale emotional processing (EP) would contribute more to better health than would EAC subscale emotional expression (EE). As part of a corporate wellness program, employees (162 women, 484 men,) completed the World Health Organization Health and Performance Questionnaire: Survey Version, INSIGHT + Health Risk Appraisal Survey and a general use version of the EAC Scale. Biometric indices of physical health (e.g., cholesterol indices, triglycerides, body mass index) were also measured. Stepwise regressions controlling for age revealed that EAC accounted for small amounts of variance for all nine mental health variables investigated, and two of nine physical health variables. EAC was a better predictor of health for women. EP explained more variance than did EE for both women and men. EP predicted better health for women for variables measuring sense of overall mental health, nervousness, anger/hostility, work stress, stress-management effectiveness and ratio of high-density lipids to low-density lipids. EE predicted less depressive/dysphoric tendencies for women, less family stress, more interest/challenge in life and greater degree of support from friends/family. For men, EP predicted better effectiveness in managing stress, more interest/challenge in life, more support from friends/family, and higher ratings of general overall physical health. EP predicted lessened health for men on self-reported depressive/dysphoric tendencies. EE for men predicted better sense of overall mental health and less depressive/dysphoric tendencies. Differences between EP and EE, sex differences and clinical implications are discussed.

    Illness by suggestion: Expectancy, modeling, and gender in the production of psychosomatic symptoms

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    Background: Expectancy and modeling have been cited as factors in mass psychogenic illness (MPI), which reportedly affects more women than men. Purpose: The purpose of the study is to assess the effects of expectancy and modeling in a controlled laboratory analogue of MPI. Methods: Students were randomly assigned to inhale or not inhale an inert placebo described as a suspected environmental toxin that had been linked to four symptoms typical of reported instances of MPI. Half of the students observed a female confederate inhale the substance and subsequently display the specified symptoms. Results: Students who inhaled the placebo reported greater increases in symptoms, and the increase was significantly greater for the specified symptoms than for other symptoms. Observation of the confederate displaying symptoms increased specified symptoms significantly among women but not among men. Changes in reported symptoms were significantly associated with changes in unobtrusively observed behavior Conclusions: Symptoms typical of clinical reports of MPI can be induced by manipulating response expectancies, and the effects are specific rather than generalized. Among women, this effect is enhanced by observing another participant (who in this study is also female) display symptoms. This suggests that the preponderance of women showing symptoms in outbreaks of MPI may be due to gender-linked differences in the effects of modeling on psychogenic symptoms