37 research outputs found

    The incidence of Reproductive Disorders in Dairy Cows under Smallholder Farms

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    The objective of this study was to know the incidence of reproductive disorders in smallholder dairy farms. The study was conducted in 12 small dairy farms in Enrekang Regency, Indonesia.  A total of 80 dairy Holstein Friesian cattle consisted of 51 dairy cows and 29 dairy heifers were used in the present study. All dairy cattle at each farm were housed in tie-stall barns.  Reproductive examination was conducted to determine the incidence of reproductive disorders both vaginoscopy and palpation per rectum. The incidence of reproductive disorders was 30.0%; 31.0% in dairy heifers and 29.4% in dairy cows. Uterine infection was the most reproductive disorder suffered to the dairy cattle (12.5%), followed by inactive ovaries and cyst (10% and 5%, respectively). The dairy cattle suffered from reproductive disorders increased the likelihood to mate (artificial insemination; AI) greater than three times as well as to become pregnant. In the population of dairy cattle, 48% AI was conducted greater than three times. The pregnancy rate for the dairy cattle suffered from reproductive disorders was only 20%, with interval from calving to conception was 550 days in average. It can be concluded that high incidence of reproductive disorders in smallholder dairy farms. The occurrence of reproductive disorders decreased the reproductive performance of the dairy cattle in smallholder farms

    Analysis of some factors affecting fertility levels in a high-producing dairy herd in south-western Japan

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    The present study aimed to know whether all cows have been showing declining fertility or only a proportion of cows are\ud attributed to the declining fertility, and to describe factors affecting the level of fertility. A total of 131 cows calved from\ud February 2005 to December 2007 in a dairy herd were examined. Fourteen cows were excluded from the study because\ud of early culling. Of the remaining 117 cows, 47 (40%) conceived within 115 days postpartum after 1???3 artificial\ud insemination (AI) (normal fertility cows), 42 (36%) conceived after 115 days postpartum following 1???3 AI or were culled\ud after 1???2 (sub-fertility cows/culled), and 28 (24%) were inseminated more than three times without detectable genital tract\ud abnormalities (repeat breeders). Calving to conception interval in the normal fertility group was 72 + 3 days, while in the\ud sub-fertility/culled and repeat breeding groups the intervals were 170 + 8 and 259 + 16 days, respectively. Endometritis\ud was the risk factor for sub-fertility/culled (odds ratio (OR) = 3.76). Prolonged luteal phase (OR = 4.08), delayed first\ud ovulation (OR = 6.02), and delayed corpus luteum formation after AI (OR = 8.55) were the risk factors for repeat breeding.\ud In conclusion, 60% cows showed reduced fertility in a herd, while the other 40% had normal fertility. Uterine infection and\ud some ovarian disorders contributed to reduced fertility

    Hubungan antara munculnya ovulasi pertama setelah melahirkan dan puncak produksi susu pada sapi perah

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    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat hubungan antara munculnya ovulasi pertama\ud setelah melahirkan dan puncak produksi pada sapi perah. Sebanyak 22 ekor sapi perah\ud (Holstein-Friesian) yang dilepas di dalam kandang dan sedang laktasi digunakan dalam\ud penelitian ini. Pemerahan dilakukan dengan menggunakan robot dengan frekuensi\ud pemerahan antara dua sampai empat kali sehari dengan rata-rata produksi susu selama 305\ud hari adalah sebesar 7.326 kg/ekor. Siklus ovarium dimonitor dengan menggunakan profil\ud hormon progesteron dalam susu dengan pengambilan sampel susu dilakukan dua kali\ud seminggu dimulai sekitar seminggu setelah melahirkan sampai ternak sapi kembali bunting\ud atau di-culling. Parameter yang diukur adalah interval antara melahirkan dan puncak\ud produksi susu, produksi susu puncak, serta interval antara melahirkan dan ovulasi pertama.\ud Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa jarak (??SD) antara melahirkan dan munculnya\ud ovulasi pertama adalah 41,2 ?? 24,2 hari. Puncak produksi susu dicapai pada hari (??SD)\ud 56,5 ?? 33,2, dan kuantitas (??SD) produksi susu puncak adalah 29,3 ?? 7,2 kg. Hubungan\ud antara puncak produksi susu setelah melahirkan dan munculnya ovulasi pertama mengikuti\ud persamaan garis linier y = 0,9777x ??? 5,2855; P < 0,001. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, dapat\ud disimpulkan bahwa semakin panjang jarak antara melahirkan dan puncak produksi susu\ud memperpanjang periode awal munculnya ovulasi pertama setelah melahirkan

    Comparison in Effect of Heatsynch with Heat Detection Aids and CIDR-Heatsynch in Dairy Heifers

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    The objective of the present study was to determine whether\ud oestrous detection with the help of oestrous detection aids\ud during the Heatsynch without timed AI protocol is equally\ud effective with the progesterone-combined protocol in dairy\ud heifers. A total of 148 heifers were randomly assigned to one of\ud the two groups. A group of heifers treated with Heatsynch\ud with heat detection aids (n = 72) received GnRH on day 0,\ud prostaglandin F2a (PGF2a) on day 7 and oestradiol benzoate\ud (EB) on day 8, while in controlled internal drug release\ud (CIDR)-Heatsynch group (n = 76), CIDR was included\ud during a period from GnRH to PGF2a. Heifers were checked\ud for oestrus twice daily, i.e. from 09:00 to 10:00 hours and from\ud 15:00 to 16:00 hours starting on day 2 for Heatsynch group\ud and on day 8 in CIDR-Heatsynch group, and continued up to\ud day 12. KAMAR heat mount detector (KAMAR Inc.,\ud Steamboat Springs, CO, USA) and ALL-WEATHER \ud PAINTSTIK (LA-CO Industries Inc., Elk Grove Village,\ud IL, USA) were used as heat detection aids. AI was conducted\ud within 1 h after confirming oestrus in 72 heifers, while 19\ud animals were transferred with embryo 7 days after oestrus\ud according to the request of the owners. Premature oestrus\ud before PGF2a injection occurred in 18% of Heatsynch group.\ud Of 13 heifers which showed premature oestrus, six were\ud inseminated and two of them conceived. Oestrus detection rate\ud within 12 days after initiation of the protocols did not differ\ud between the two groups (94% vs 95%). There was no\ud difference in the conception rate after first AI (including\ud heifers that were inseminated before PGF2a injection) and\ud embryo transfer between Heatsynch with heat detection aids\ud and CIDR-Heatsynch groups (36% vs 44% and 70% vs 56%).\ud It is concluded that the use of heat detection aids to monitor\ud the occurrence of premature oestrus prior to PGF2a injection\ud in Heatsynch protocol in dairy heifers was equally effective to\ud the inclusion of CIDR

    Reproductive performance of repeat breeders in dairy herds

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    The objectives were to characterize repeat breeding in dairy cows, including reproductive performance and risk factors. Data\ud from 613 Holstein Friesian cows in nine dairy herds across Japan were enrolled. A repeat breeder was defined as a cow that did not\ud become pregnant after three inseminations, despite no clinically detectable reproductive disorders. In contrast, cows that became\ud pregnant within three inseminations were considered to have normal fertility. Of the 613 cows, 87.3% eventually became pregnant\ud after repeated AI (maximum calving to conception interval was 435 d). Mean ( SEM) first AI conception rate, days in milk at first\ud AI, calving to conception interval and service per conception were 38.3%, 82 2 d, 125 3 d, and 2.0 0.1 times, respectively.\ud Normal fertility cows (n = 479) required only 114 3 d to conceive and 1.7 0.1 inseminations per pregnancy, whereas repeat\ud breeders (n = 86) required significantly more days to conceive (211 10) and more inseminations per pregnancy (4.7 0.2). Based\ud on survival analysis, it took 94 d after calving for 50% of normal fertility cows to become pregnant, compared to 155 d for repeat\ud breeders. For repeat breeders, 31.4, 50.0, and 58.1% became pregnant within 210, 300, and 435 d after calving, respectively. The\ud risk factors for repeat breeding were parity (relative risk [RR] = 0.809; P = 0.058), resumption of postpartum ovarian cycles\ud (RR = 1.928; P = 0.009), and days in milk at first AI (RR = 0.991; P = 0.039). In conclusion, repeat breeder dairy cows had very\ud poor reproductive performance. Lower parity, abnormal resumption of postpartum ovarian cycles, and shorter days in milk at first\ud AI were risk factors for repeat breeding

    BLOOM: A 176B-Parameter Open-Access Multilingual Language Model

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    Large language models (LLMs) have been shown to be able to perform new tasks based on a few demonstrations or natural language instructions. While these capabilities have led to widespread adoption, most LLMs are developed by resource-rich organizations and are frequently kept from the public. As a step towards democratizing this powerful technology, we present BLOOM, a 176B-parameter open-access language model designed and built thanks to a collaboration of hundreds of researchers. BLOOM is a decoder-only Transformer language model that was trained on the ROOTS corpus, a dataset comprising hundreds of sources in 46 natural and 13 programming languages (59 in total). We find that BLOOM achieves competitive performance on a wide variety of benchmarks, with stronger results after undergoing multitask prompted finetuning. To facilitate future research and applications using LLMs, we publicly release our models and code under the Responsible AI License

    Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome

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    The sequence of the human genome encodes the genetic instructions for human physiology, as well as rich information about human evolution. In 2001, the International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium reported a draft sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome. Since then, the international collaboration has worked to convert this draft into a genome sequence with high accuracy and nearly complete coverage. Here, we report the result of this finishing process. The current genome sequence (Build 35) contains 2.85 billion nucleotides interrupted by only 341 gaps. It covers ∌99% of the euchromatic genome and is accurate to an error rate of ∌1 event per 100,000 bases. Many of the remaining euchromatic gaps are associated with segmental duplications and will require focused work with new methods. The near-complete sequence, the first for a vertebrate, greatly improves the precision of biological analyses of the human genome including studies of gene number, birth and death. Notably, the human enome seems to encode only 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes. The genome sequence reported here should serve as a firm foundation for biomedical research in the decades ahead

    Incorporating Domain Knowledge and Structure-Based Descriptors for Machine Learning: A Case Study of Pd-Catalyzed Sonogashira Reactions

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    Machine learning has revolutionized information processing for large datasets across various fields. However, its limited interpretability poses a significant challenge when applied to chemistry. In this study, we developed a set of simple molecular representations to capture the structural information of ligands in palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira coupling reactions of aryl bromides. Drawing inspiration from human understanding of catalytic cycles, we used a graph neural network to extract structural details of the phosphine ligand, a major contributor to the overall activation energy. We combined these simple molecular representations with an electronic descriptor of aryl bromide as inputs for a fully connected neural network unit. The results allowed us to predict rate constants and gain mechanistic insights into the rate-limiting oxidative addition process using a relatively small dataset. This study highlights the importance of incorporating domain knowledge in machine learning and presents an alternative approach to data analysis

    Prenatal diagnosis of a case with SEA-HPFH deletion thalassemia with whole HBB gene deletion

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    Objective: The thalassemias is a group of hereditary disorders with impaired production of functional hemoglobin. In this report we described a rare case of compound heterozygous mutation of South-East Asia type hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (SEA-HPFH) and ÎČ -thalassemia that allowed prenatal diagnosis to be performed in a subsequent pregnancy in the family. Case report: The father showed a SEA-HPFH thalassemia trait phenotype, while his genotype revealed that he was heterozygous for the SEA-HPFH deletion; The mother genotype was heterozygote for IVS-II-654 mutation; the second child had co-inherited both parental mutations and was, thus, a compound heterozygote for ÎČ-thalassemia (IVS-II-654)/SEA-HPFH deletion. His phenotype was intermediate ÎČ-thalassemia. Prenatal genotyping of a fetal sample during the third pregnancy confirmed the fetus was only heterozygote for SEA-HPFH deletion and the parents elected to continue the pregnancy. Conclusion: We described the clinical and molecular characterization of the first detected case of compound ÎČ-Thalassemia/SEA-HPFH deletion in Northern Vietnam. The report also highlighted the accuracy and necessity of mutation screening for families with thalassemia to inform accurate genetic counseling and targeted prenatal diagnosis when desired