113 research outputs found

    Depletion of wildtype <i>csnk-1</i> transcripts in L4 <i>csnk-1(lf)</i> mutants.

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    (A) Positions and sequences of PCR primers for detecting all or wildtype-only csnk-1 transcripts. Partial wildtype and mutant csnk-1 sequences are aligned to show the specificity of the primers for wildtype-only transcripts. (B) Relative total csnk-1 transcript levels. (C, D) Relative wildtype-only csnk-1 transcript levels in wildtype, csnk-1(mac494lf) or csnk-1(mac495lf) animals. tba-1 was the loading control. Statistics: two-tailed unpaired Student’s t-test. *: p p p (TIFF)</p

    Geochemical Responses to Anthropogenic and Natural Influences in Ebinur Lake Sediments of Arid Northwest China

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    <div><p>Geochemical concentrations were extracted for a short sediment core from Ebinur Lake, located in arid northwest China, and mathematical methods were used to demonstrate the complex pattern of the geochemical anomalies resulting from the temporal changes in natural and anthropogenic forces on the lake sediments. The first element assemblage (C1) (aluminum, potassium, iron, magnesium, beryllium, etc.) was predominantly terrigenous; among the assemblage, total phosphorus and titanium were generally consistent with aluminum except with regards to their surface sequences, which inferred the differences of source regions for terrigenous detrital material led to this change around ca. 2000AD. The second assemblage (C2) (calcium and strontium) was found to have a negative relationship with aluminum through a cluster analysis. The third assemblage (C3) included sodium and magnesium, which were influenced by the underwater lake environment and deposited in the Ebinur depression. The concentration ratio of C1/(C1+C2) was used as an indicator for denudation amount of detrital materials, which was supported by the values of magnetic susceptibility. The enrichment factors for heavy metals suggested that the influence of human activities on heavy-metal enrichment in Ebinur Lake region was not severe over the past century. Prior to the 1960s, geochemical indicators suggested a stable lacustrine environment with higher water levels. Beginning in the 1960s, high agricultural water demand resulted in rapid declines in lake water level, with subsequent increases of lake water salinity, as evidenced by enhanced sodium concentration in lake core sediments. During this period, anthropogenic activity also enhanced the intensity of weathering and the denudation of the Ebinur watershed.</p></div

    <i>csnk-1(lf)</i> and <i>skn-1(gf)</i> mutations exhibit synergy on the Sisi phenotype in 50 mM NaI.

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    csnk-1(lf) and skn-1(gf) mutations exhibit synergy on the Sisi phenotype in 50 mM NaI.</p

    Effects of <i>csnk-1</i> mutations or variable feeding RNAis on the Sisi phenotype.

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    Mammalian orthologs or homologs are indicated in the parentheses. (TIFF)</p

    Genomic target sequences for generating <i>tsp-15</i> knockin and <i>csnk-1</i> knockout strains using the CRISPR/Cas9 method.

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    ND: not determined. For tsp-15 repair template, the letter in red was for introducing the missense mutation and letters in blue were for introducing silent mutations. (TIFF)</p

    Representative morphologies of double homozygous mutants between <i>csnk-1(lf)</i> and <i>bli-3(lf)</i> or <i>doxa-1(lf)</i>.

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    bli-3(lf) csnk-1(lf) double homozygous mutants were derived from bli-3(lf) csnk-1(lf)/hT2 heterozygous mutants. csnk-1(lf); doxa-1(lf) double homozygous mutants were derived from csnk-1(lf)/hT2; doxa-1(lf)/hT2 heterozygous mutants. Arrows point to typical blisters. All images are of the same scale. (TIFF)</p

    CSNK-1::mCherry does not colocalize with GFP and DOXA-1::GFP does not colocalize with mCherry.

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    (A, B, C) A transgenic L3 larvae co-expressing GFP and CSNK-1::mCherry in epithelial cells. (D, E, F) A transgenic 3-fold embryo co-expressing DOXA-1::GFP and mCherry in epithelial cells. For unclear reason, DOXA-1::GFP was strongly expressed in embryos but was not visible at larval stages in these transgenic lines. We therefore observed whether DOXA-1::GFP colocalizes with mCherry in embryos. (TIFF)</p

    PCR primers for generating the listed DNA fragments.

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    PCR primers for generating the listed DNA fragments.</p

    Effects of <i>csnk-1(lf)</i> on the expression of <i>gst-4p</i>::<i>GFP</i> transgene <i>dvIs19</i>.

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    (A) Synchronized L1 animals of the indicated genotypes were observed after 4 hrs on food. For csnk-1(lf) animals, a mixed population of csnk-1(lf)/hT2; dvIs19 and csnk-1(lf); dvIs19 were shown, in which the csnk-1(lf)/hT2 genotype can be identified by pharyngeal GFP signals (arrowheads) expressed from an integrated GFP reporter in hT2 balancer. Animals without pharyngeal GFPs were identified as csnk-1(lf) homozygous (arrows). Pictures were taken with the same exposure time of 100 ms. Total GFP intensity of individual animal was measured using ImageJ and compared with those of dvIs19 controls. Results were based on over 130 individuals for each genotype. Statistics: two-tailed unpaired Student’s t-test. ***: p csnk-1(lf) on dvIs19 expression with or without skn-1(RNAi). Animals were treated with feeding RNAi for 72 hrs after hatching. For each experiment, seven animals were aligned and measured for total GFP intensities using ImageJ. The average GFP intensity per animal was adjusted to that of dvIs19; ctrl RNAi group. Pictures were taken with the same exposure time of 100 ms. Results were based on three biological replicates. Statistics: two-tailed unpaired Student’s t-test. *: p 0.05; **: p (TIFF)</p

    PCR primers for generating RNAi plasmids targeting the listed genes.

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    PCR primers for generating RNAi plasmids targeting the listed genes.</p
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