528 research outputs found

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    The introduction of the TMPG fails charge for U.S. Treasury securities

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    The TMPG fails charge for U.S. Treasury securities provides that a buyer of Treasury securities can claim monetary compensation from the seller if the seller fails to deliver the securities on a timely basis. The charge was introduced in May 2009 and replaced an existing market convention of simply postponing—without any explicit penalty and at an unchanged invoice price—a seller’s obligation to deliver Treasury securities if the seller fails to deliver the securities on a scheduled settlement date. This article explains how a proliferation of settlement fails following the insolvency of Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. in September 2008 led the Treasury Market Practices Group (TMPG)—a group of market professionals committed to supporting the integrity and efficiency of the U.S. Treasury market—to promote a change in the existing market convention. The change—the introduction of the fails charge—was significant because it mitigated an important dysfunctionality in the secondary market for U.S. Treasury securities and because it stands as an example of the value of cooperation between the public and private sectors in responding to altered market conditions in a flexible, timely, and innovative fashion.Treasury bonds ; Government securities ; Clearing of securities ; Secondary markets

    Acute Liver Failure Secondary to Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis during Pregnancy.

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    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a syndrome of excessive immune activation that mimics and occurs with other systemic diseases. A 35-year-old female presented with signs of viral illness at 13 weeks of pregnancy and progressed to acute liver failure (ALF). We discuss the diagnosis of HLH and Kikuchi-Fujimoto (KF) lymphadenitis in the context of pregnancy and ALF. HLH may respond to comorbid disease-specific therapy, and more toxic treatment can be avoided

    Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of Teach Back Curriculum For Community Health Workers

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    Teach Back is a commonly used communication method to improve patient understanding and retention of health information. The method has been shown to be effective in improving patient and healthcare system outcomes, including patient health literacy and hospital readmissions. Community health workers (CHWs) are frontline healthcare workers who can help address patient health and social needs associated with hospital readmissions. However, a gap exists in Teach Back curricula and training methods reflecting the scope of work for CHWs. The objective of this training was to provide CHWs with didactic information and skill building practice curriculum focused on the integration of Teach Back into clinical patient interactions, care coordination, and follow-up support. A multidisciplinary team of academic and clinical partners at a large academic health university developed, implemented, and evaluated a 3-week pilot Teach Back training with CHWs through a quality improvement approach. The CHWs reported overall satisfaction with the training and instructors. The academic clinical partnership allowed the training to be tailored to the daily clinical workflow as reflected in the CHWs agreement that the training was relevant and practical. With the repeated exposure to Teach Back each week, the CHWs also reported an increase in confidence and conviction in using Teach Back. Additional implementation and evaluation of the training curriculum for CHWs is needed to gain further insights into Teach Back and training best practices and translation into practice

    Development of Training Curriculum to Improve Patient Communication Skills and Social Support among Community Health Workers

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    BACKGROUND: Effective provider communication skills are important for patient decision-making and understanding, particularly for those with low health literacy. A gap exists in training methods and curriculum for community health workers (CHWs). Brief description of activity: Through a clinical and academic partnership, pilot training curriculum focused on patient communication skills was developed to align with CHW scope of work. IMPLEMENTATION: The curriculum was implemented in three 2-hour training sessions over WebEx with seven state-certified CHWs. The goal was for CHWs to understand the key elements and application of active listening, Teach Back, and action planning in a clinical setting. The sessions included didactic and skills practice modules for each skill. RESULTS: A survey was distributed to CHWs to evaluate knowledge, skills, and attitudes and reactions to training methods, instructors, and relevance using the Kirkpatrick\u27s evaluation model (Reaction and Learning). Although CHWs agreed that they had actively participated in the training and that the instructors were well-prepared, there was less agreement that the course was relevant. CHWs reported an increase in understanding of active listening and action planning, capability of using Teach Back and providing social support, and ability to teach, whereas a decrease was reported in the capability to use action planning. When probed about training relevance, CHWs felt action listening and Teach Back were relevant, but that action planning was not relevant to their responsibilities. This gap in responsibilities was also acknowledged by the clinical leadership. LESSONS LEARNED: The training allowed the CHWs to build on subsequent skills from previous sessions and to discuss struggles. A need for tools for integrating the skills in the clinical workflow were requested by CHWs and clinical leadership. These tools offer the opportunity to tailor future trainings on communication skills or patient scenarios. Future trainings should include CHWs to provide insight into scope of work.

    The influence of active coping and perceived stress on health disparities in a multi-ethnic low income sample

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Extensive research has shown that ethnic health disparities are prevalent and many psychological and social factors influence health disparities. Understanding what factors influence health disparities and how to eliminate health disparities has become a major research objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of coping style, stress, socioeconomic status (SES), and discrimination on health disparities in a large urban multi-ethnic sample.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Data from 894 participants were collected via telephone interviews. Independent variables included: coping style, SES, sex, perceived stress, and perceived discrimination. Dependent variables included self-rated general and oral health status. Data analysis included multiple linear regression modeling.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Coping style was related to oral health for Blacks (B = .23, p < .05) and for Whites there was a significant interaction (B = -.59, p < .05) between coping style and SES for oral health. For Blacks, active coping was associated with better self-reported health. For Whites, low active coping coupled with low SES was significantly associated with worse oral health. Coping style was not significantly related to general health. Higher perceived stress was a significant correlate of poorer general health for all ethnoracial groups and poorer oral health for Hispanics and Blacks. SES was directly related to general health for Hispanics (.B = .27, p < .05) and Whites (B = .23, p < .05) but this relationship was mediated by perceived stress.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Our results indicate that perceived stress is a critical component in understanding health outcomes for all ethnoracial groups. While SES related significantly to general health for Whites and Hispanics, this relationship was mediated by perceived stress. Active coping was associated only with oral health.</p

    The development, feasibility and acceptability of a school-based obesity prevention programme: results from three phases of piloting

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    addresses: Institute for Health Service Research, Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.notes: PMCID: PMC3191390types: Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tCopyright © 2011 by the BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. This articles was first published in: BMJ, 2011, Vol. 1, Issue 1, pp. e000026 -To develop a school-based obesity prevention programme and evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention and the planned definitive cluster randomised trial

    Evidence, theory and context - using intervention mapping to develop a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children

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    © 2011 Lloyd et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.Only limited data are available on the development and feasibility piloting of school-based interventions to prevent and reduce obesity in children. Clear documentation of the rationale, process of development and content of such interventions is essential to enable other researchers to understand why interventions succeed or fail

    Re-envisioning Teacher Education: Using DisCrit Perspectives to Disrupt Deficit Thinking

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    This paper suggests that teacher educators engage in research that investigates practices and curriculum to consider how they might best confront issues of equity and deficit thinking in individual courses and disciplines. Rooted in the tenets of culturally responsive teaching and culturally sustaining pedagogy, the authors explore how DisCrit theory further informs understandings of hegemonic schooling practices, imploring faculty to upset the implicitly biased narratives that are so often reproduced in teacher education
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