27 research outputs found

    Supernovae Types Ia/II and Intracluster Medium Enrichment

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    We re-examine the respective roles played by supernovae (SNe) Types Ia and II in enriching the intracluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters, in light of the recent downward shift of the ASCA abundance ratios of alpha-elements to iron favoured by Ishimaru & Arimoto (1997, PASJ, 49, 1). Because of this shift, Ishimaru & Arimoto conclude that >50% of the ICM iron must have originated from within Type Ia SNe progenitors. A point not appreciated in their study, nor in most previous analyses, is the crucial dependence of such a conclusion upon the adopted massive star physics. Employing several alternative Type II SN yield compilations, we demonstrate how uncertainties in the treatment of convection and mass-loss can radically alter our perception of the relative importance of Type Ia and II SNe as ICM polluters. If mass-loss of the form favoured by Maeder (1992, A&A, 264, 105) or convection of the form favoured by Arnett (1996, Supernovae and Nucleosynthesis) is assumed, the effect upon the oxygen yields would lead us to conclude that Type Ia SNe play no part in polluting the ICM, in contradiction with Ishimaru & Arimoto. Apparent dichotomies still exist (e.g. the mean ICM neon-to-iron ratio implies a 100% Type II Fe origin, while the mean sulphur ratio indicates a 100% Type Ia origin) that cannot be reconciled with the currently available yield tables.Comment: 6 pages (incl 1 PostScript figure), LaTeX, also available at http://msowww.anu.edu.au/~gibson/publications.html, MNRAS, in pres

    Searching for the 3.5 keV Line in the Stacked Suzaku Observations of Galaxy Clusters

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    We perform a detailed study of the stacked Suzaku observations of 47 galaxy clusters, spanning a redshift range of 0.01-0.45, to search for the unidentified 3.5 keV line. This sample provides an independent test for the previously detected line. We detect only a 2sigma-significant spectral feature at 3.5 keV in the spectrum of the full sample. When the sample is divided into two subsamples (cool-core and non-cool core clusters), cool-core subsample shows no statistically significant positive residuals at the line energy. A very weak (2sigma-confidence) spectral feature at 3.5 keV is permitted by the data from the non-cool core clusters sample. The upper limit on a neutrino decay mixing angle from the full Suzaku sample is consistent with the previous detections in the stacked XMM-Newton sample of galaxy clusters (which had a higher statistical sensitivity to faint lines), M31, and Galactic Center at a 90% confidence level. However, the constraint from the present sample, which does not include the Perseus cluster, is in tension with previously reported line flux observed in the core of the Perseus cluster with XMM-Newton and Suzaku.Comment: ApJ in press, 9 pages, 3 figure

    Uniform Contribution of Supernova Explosions to the Chemical Enrichment of Abell 3112 out to R 200

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    The spatial distribution of the metals residing in the intra-cluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters records all the information on a cluster's nucleosynthesis and chemical enrichment history. We present measurements from a total of 1.2 Ms Suzaku XIS and 72 ks Chandra observations of the cool-core galaxy cluster Abell 3112 out to its virial radius (~1470 kpc). We find that the ratio of the observed supernova type Ia explosions to the total supernova explosions has a uniform distribution at a level of 12%‚Äď16% out to the cluster's virial radius. The observed fraction of type Ia supernova explosions is in agreement with the corresponding fraction found in our Galaxy and the chemical enrichment of our Galaxy. The non-varying supernova enrichment suggests that the ICM in cluster outskirts was enriched by metals at an early stage before the cluster itself was formed during a period of intense star formation activity. Additionally, we find that the 2D delayed detonation model CDDT produce significantly worse fits to the X-ray spectra compared to simple 1D W7 models. This is due to the relative overestimate of Si, and the underestimate of Mg in these models with respect to the measured abundances.United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NNX09AV65G)United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NNX10AV02G

    RADIAL PROFILE OF THE 3.5 keV LINE OUT TO R 200 IN THE PERSEUS CLUSTER

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    The recent discovery of the unidentified emission line at 3.5 keV in galaxies and clusters has attracted great interest from the community. As the origin of the line remains uncertain, we study the surface brightness distribution of the line in the Perseus cluster since that information can be used to identify its origin. We examine the flux distribution of the 3.5 keV line in the deep Suzaku observations of the Perseus cluster in detail. The 3.5 keV line is observed in three concentric annuli in the central observations, although the observations of the outskirts of the cluster did not reveal such a signal. We establish that these detections and the upper limits from the non-detections are consistent with a dark matter decay origin. However, absence of positive detection in the outskirts is also consistent with some unknown astrophysical origin of the line in the dense gas of the Perseus core, as well as with a dark matter origin with a steeper dependence on mass than the dark matter decay. We also comment on several recently published analyses of the 3.5 keV line.United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (Contracts NNX14AF78G and NNX123AE77G

    Empirical Evidence of Anchoring and Loss Aversion from Art Auctions Empirical Evidence of Anchoring and Loss Aversion from Art Auctions

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    Abstract We find evidence for the behavioral biases of anchoring and loss aversion. We find that anchoring is more important for items that are resold quickly, and we find that the effect of loss aversion increases with the time that a painting is held. The evidence in favor of anchoring and loss aversion with a large new dataset validates previous results and adds to the empirical evidence a finding of increasing loss aversion with the length of holding. However, we do not find evidence that investors can take advantage of these behavioral biases.

    Defining Mild Cognitive Impairment: Impact of Varying Decision Criteria on Neuropsychological Diagnostic Frequencies and Correlates

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    To examine the impact of varying decision criteria on neuropsychological diagnostic frequencies and on their correlates. Descriptive and correlational study. Florida Alzheimer's Disease Research Center. A sample of 373 individuals with comprehensive baseline analyses participating in a longitudinal study of cognitive decline and early Alzheimer disease. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) diagnoses were made on the basis of four sets of decision criteria created by crossing two approaches: varying the number of impaired test results required for a diagnosis within any domain (1 test versus 2) and varying the performance level required to determine impairment (1.5 or 2 standard deviations [SDs] below the normative mean) for any test. Under each criteria set, single-domain amnestic MCI was the most frequent MCI diagnosis. MCI global and subtype diagnosis frequencies were inversely related to the stringency of the criteria. The single test-1.5 SD criterion identified the largest number of cases as qualifying for an MCI diagnosis, and the two test-2.0 SD cutoff identified the fewest. Across all sets of criteria, the authors found significant positive associations between neuropsychological diagnoses and Clinical Dementia Rating score categories. Significant relationships between diagnoses and both apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and magnetic resonance imaging ratings of medial temporal atrophy (MTA) application were found only for the two test-1.5 SD and two test-2.0 SD cutoffs. MCI diagnosis frequencies are substantively affected by the stringency of the criteria, but the relative rankings of MCI subtype diagnoses are fairly consistent regardless of the stringency of the criteria. Significant associations of neuropsychological diagnoses with independent markers such as APOE genotype and MTA are only found with more stringent criteria, suggesting that a coherent network of associations reflecting cognitive decline occurs with more restrictive definitions for impairment

    Verbal Fluency Patterns in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

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    &lt;b&gt;&lt;i&gt;Background/Aims:&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/b&gt; Verbal fluency patterns can assist in differential diagnosis during neuropsychological assessment and identify individuals at risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). While evidence suggests that subjects with AD perform worse on category fluency than letter fluency tasks, the pattern in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is less well known. &lt;b&gt;&lt;i&gt;Methods:&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/b&gt; Performance on the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT) and Animal fluency was compared in control, amnestic MCI, non-amnestic MCI, and AD groups. The sample included 136 participants matched for age, education, and gender. &lt;b&gt;&lt;i&gt;Results:&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/b&gt; Both MCI groups performed similarly with a category &gt; letter fluency pattern rather than a category &lt; letter fluency pattern typically observed in AD. The pattern in MCI, albeit relatively more impaired than in controls, was more similar to healthy controls who exhibited a category &gt; letter fluency pattern. &lt;b&gt;&lt;i&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/b&gt; MCI using a category &lt; letter fluency pattern may not represent AD; however, future research requires longitudinal studies of pattern analysis.</jats:p
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